2Cognitive ScienceInterdisciplinary field that studies the mind, intelligence, and behavior from an information processing perspectiveProvides the scaffolding for the analysis and modeling of complicated, multifaceted human performance and therefore has a tremendous effect on the issues impacting informatics. The end user is the focus since we are concerned with enhancing the performance in the workplace; in nursing, the end user could be the actual clinician in the clinical setting, and cognitive science can enhance the integration and implementation of the technologies being designed to facilitate this knowledge worker with the ultimate goal of improving patient care.
3ConnectionismComponent of cognitive science that uses computer modeling through artificial neural networks to try to explain human intellectual abilities.
4Neural networksInterconnected simple processing devices or simplified models of the brain and nervous system that consist of a considerable number of elements or units (analogs of neurons) linked together in a pattern of connections (analogs of synapses).One that would model the entire nervous system would have three types of units:Input units (analogs of sensory neurons) receive information to be processedHidden units (analogs to all of the other neurons - not sensory or motor) work in between input and output unitsOutput units (analogs of motor neurons) where the outcomes or results of the processing are found
5EpistemologyStudy of the nature and origin of knowledge—what it means to know
6The whole point in collecting and building data, information, and knowledge is to be able to make informed, judicious, prudent, and intelligent decisions.
7The decision-making process evolves around knowledge and wisdom
8KnowledgeThe awareness and understanding of a set of information and ways that information can be made useful to support a specific task or arrive at a decision; it abounds with others’ thoughts and information or is information that is synthesized so that relationships are identified and formalized.
9WisdomKnowledge applied in a practical way or translated into actions; to use knowledge and experience to heighten common sense and insight to exercise sound judgment in practical matters; sometimes thought of as the highest form of common sense resulting from accumulated knowledge or erudition (deep, thorough learning) or enlightenment (education that results in understanding and the dissemination of knowledge); it is the ability to apply valuable and viable knowledge, experience, understanding and insight while being prudent and sensible; is focused on our own minds; the synthesis of our experience, insight, understanding, and knowledge; the appropriate use of knowledge to solve human problems. It is knowing when and how to apply knowledge.
10Cognitive Informatics (CI) Wang (2003) describes cognitive informatics (CI) as an emerging transdisciplinary field of study that attempts to bridge the gap of understanding how information is processed in the mind and in the computer. Computing and informatics theories can be applied to help understand the information processing of the brain, and cognitive and neurological sciences can likewise be applied to build better and more efficient computer processing systems.
11Artificial Intelligence (AI) The field that deals with the conception, development, and implementation of informatics tools based on intelligent technologies. This field attempts to capture the complex processes of human thought and intelligence.
12SummaryNurses must use their wisdom and make informed, judicious, prudent, and intelligent decisions while enacting careCognitive science, cognitive informatics, and artificial intelligence will continue to evolve to help us build knowledge and wisdom.