Presentation on theme: "4 The Union in Peril QUIT CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE VISUAL SUMMARY SECTION The Divisive Politics of Slavery."— Presentation transcript:
4 The Union in Peril QUIT CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE VISUAL SUMMARY SECTION The Divisive Politics of Slavery 1 SECTION The Civil War Begins 2 SECTION The North Takes Charge 3 SECTION Reconstruction and Its Effects 4 MAP GRAPH
4 The Union in Peril HOME CHAPTER OBJECTIVE To understand the events that led to the Civil War, the course and outcome of the war, and the establishment and eventual failure of Reconstruction
4 W I T H H I S T O R Y I N T E R A C T How can the Union be saved? Examine the Issues The year is Across the United States a debate is raging, dividing North from South: Is slavery a property right or is it a violation of liberty and human dignity? The future of the Union depends on compromise—but for many people on both sides, compromise is unacceptable. What are the obstacles to altering an institution, such as slavery, that is fundamental to a region’s economy and way of life? Is it possible to compromise on an ethical issue such as slavery? HOME The Union in Peril
4 The United StatesThe World 1851 The Great Exhibition opens in London Franklin Pierce is elected president. Uncle Tom’s Cabin published Charles Dickens’s Hard Times is published James Buchanan is elected president Abraham Lincoln wins presidential election. South Carolina secedes The Confederacy is formed. Civil War begins Russian serfs emancipated by Czar Alexander II. TIME LINE HOME 1863 Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg. continued... The Union in Peril 1857 The Supreme Court rules against Dred Scott.
4 The United StatesThe World 1868 Cubans revolt against Spain Ulysses S. Grant is elected president Rutherford B. Hayes is elected president Japan forces Korea to open ports to trade Reconstruction ends. TIME LINE HOME The Union in Peril 1865 Civil War ends. Lincoln is assassinated; Andrew Johnson becomes president Maximilian of Austria becomes emperor of Mexico.
1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery The issue of slavery leads to increased tension and violence between the North and the South and finally brings the nation to the brink of war. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA HOME
1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery OVERVIEW Disagreements over slavery heightened regional tensions and led to the breakup of the Union. The modern Democratic and Republican parties emerged from the political tensions of the mid- 19th century. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME Harriet Tubman Franklin Pierce Jefferson Davis Dred Scott Harriet Beecher Stowe Underground Railroad popular sovereignty Stephen Douglas Abraham Lincoln Confederacy secession ASSESSMENT
Event One Event Two Event Three Event Four 1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List four events that heightened tensions between the North and South. continued... The Compromise of 1850 includes a new fugitive slave law HOME 1852, Uncle Tom’s Cabin book on slavery stirs strong reactions 1857, Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court case causes sectional passions to explode 1859, John Brown attacks Harpers Ferry attempt to start a slave uprising intensifies sectional feeling in the country ASSESSMENT
1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery 2. Do you think there were any points at which civil war might have been averted? Think About: ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Yes. The Supreme Court made a major blunder in the Dred Scott decision. No. The conflict was inevitable. the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act the new political parties the Supreme Court’s ruling in the Dred Scott decision HOME ASSESSMENT continued... the election of Abraham Lincoln as president in 1860
1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery 3. John Brown, Harriet Tubman, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Stephen Douglas all opposed slavery. Who do you think had the greatest impact on American history and why? ANSWER Responses should reflect understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each individual and an awareness of their contributions. HOME ASSESSMENT continued...
1 The Divisive Politics of Slavery 4. How did the tension between states’ rights and national government authority manifest itself in the events leading up to the Civil War? ANSWER Popular sovereignty reinforced states’ rights. The Dred Scott decision convinced many Northerners that the slave states were influencing the national government. Lincoln’s election frightened supporters of states’ rights, because he believed that Congress could abolish slavery. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 1
2 The Civil War Begins The Civil War becomes a more prolonged, deadly conflict than anyone had predicted and has a significant impact on civilians, soldiers, and African Americans. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA HOME MAP GRAPH
2 The Civil War Begins HOME OVERVIEW Shortly after the nation’s Southern states seceded from the Union, war began between the North and South. The nation’s identity was forged in part by the Civil War. Sectional divisions remain very strong today. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT Fort Sumter Robert E. Lee Clara Barton income tax Emancipation Proclamation Stonewall Jackson Ulysses S. Grant Bull Run Antietam conscription MAP GRAPH
2 The Civil War Begins 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the military actions and social and economic changes of the first two years of the Civil War. continued Bull Run 1. African Americans join Union army HOME ASSESSMENT Military ActionsSocial & Economic Changes 2. Shiloh 3. Antietam 4. First income tax 2. Food shortages in South 3. Battlefield medicine MAP GRAPH
2 The Civil War Begins 2. What effects did the Civil War have on women and African Americans? Think About: ANSWER Opportunities expanded for both groups. For example, the Emancipation Proclamation allowed African Americans to fight for the Union, and new jobs, such as nursing, opened to women. the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation women’s role in the war effort HOME ASSESSMENT continued... MAP GRAPH
2 The Civil War Begins 3. What advantages did the Union have over the South? ANSWER The Union had greater human resources, more factories, greater food production, and a more extensive railroad system. HOME ASSESSMENT MAP GRAPH End of Section 2
3 The North Takes Charge The South surrenders to the North. However, the war has an enduring effect on the nation and on American lives. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA HOME
3 The North Takes Charge HOME TERMS & NAMES Thirteenth Amendment Gettysburg Address John Wilkes Booth William Tecumseh Sherman Appomattox Court House Gettysburg Vicksburg ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW After four years of bloody fighting, the Union wore down the Confederacy and won the war. The Union victory confirmed the authority of the federal government over the states. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW
3 The North Takes Charge 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List political, economic, physical, and social consequences of the Civil War. continued... Freed enslaved people; prevented disintegration of Union HOME ASSESSMENT Consequences of the Civil War Political Stimulated economic growth of the North and contributed to economic decline of the South Widespread destruction of houses, livestock, and railroads in the South; increased industrialization in the North Economic Physical Social Family life in both North and South disrupted by departure of millions of men to fight in the war and the high casualty rate
3 The North Takes Charge 2. Grant and Sherman used the strategy of total war. Do you think the end justifies the means? That is, did defeating the Confederacy justify harming civilians? Think About: ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Yes. Saving the Union and abolishing slavery were worth the cost of civilian lives. No. Killing defenseless citizens is immoral under any circumstances. continued... their reasons for targeting the civilian population HOME ASSESSMENT Sherman’s march through Georgia
3 The North Takes Charge 3. How did Lincoln abolish slavery in all states? ANSWER Lincoln thought that a constitutional amendment would be necessary to abolish slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment was passed at the end of HOME ASSESSMENT continued...
3 The North Takes Charge 4. Why did the Union’s victory strengthen the power of the national government? ANSWER It ensured that states would never again threaten secession. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 3
4 Reconstruction and Its Effects Reconstruction results in many political, social, and economic changes in the South before being ended in KEY IDEA OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT HOME
4 Reconstruction and Its Effects HOME TERMS & NAMES Freedmen’s Bureau Radical Republicans Andrew Johnson sharecropping Fourteenth Amendment Fifteenth Amendment Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Reconstruction scalawag carpetbagger Hiram Revels ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW After the Civil War, the nation embarked on a period known as Reconstruction, during which attempts were made to readmit the South to the Union. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, passed as part of Reconstruction, gave civil rights to Americans of all races. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW
4 Reconstruction and Its Effects 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List five problems facing the South after the Civil War. Then describe the solution that was attempted for each problem. continued... Physical devastation of the South Congressional Reconstruction Public Works Programs Freedmen’s Bureau established Reuniting North and South Former slaves need assistance HOME ASSESSMENT ProblemAttempted Solution Former slaves need land 40 acres and a mule plan Vigilante groups arise Enforcement Acts
4 Reconstruction and Its Effects 2. Do you think that Reconstruction had positive effects on Southern society? Think About: ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Reconstruction’s positive effects include the Freedmen’s Bureau’s assistance to former slaves. Reconstruction had negative effects: by trying to help former slaves it encouraged a backlash that intensified racism and led to the rise of the Ku Klux Klan; by not offering land to former slaves, it forced African Americans into sharecropping. the formation of the Ku Klux Klan why so many African Americans turned to sharecropping HOME ASSESSMENT continued...
4 Reconstruction and Its Effects 3. How did the Radical Republicans hope to reconstruct the South? ANSWER The Radical Republicans wanted to destroy the political power of former slaveholders. They also wanted African Americans to be given full citizenship, including the right to vote. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 4