Presentation on theme: "4 The Union in Peril The Divisive Politics of Slavery"— Presentation transcript:
14 The Union in Peril The Divisive Politics of Slavery QUIT4C H A P T E RThe Union in PerilCHAPTER OBJECTIVEINTERACT WITH HISTORYTIME LINESECTION1The Divisive Politics of SlaverySECTION2The Civil War BeginsMAPGRAPHSECTION3The North Takes ChargeSECTION4Reconstruction and Its EffectsVISUAL SUMMARY
2HOME4C H A P T E RThe Union in PerilCHAPTER OBJECTIVETo understand the events that led to the Civil War, the course and outcome of the war, and the establishment and eventual failure of Reconstruction
34 The Union in Peril I N T E R A C T How can the Union be saved? HOME4C H A P T E RThe Union in PerilI N T E R A C TW I T H H I S T O R YThe year is Across the United States a debate is raging, dividing North from South: Is slavery a property right or is it a violation of liberty and human dignity? The future of the Union depends on compromise—but for many people on both sides, compromise is unacceptable.How can the Union be saved?Examine the Issues• Is it possible to compromise on an ethical issue such as slavery?• What are the obstacles to altering an institution, such as slavery, that is fundamental to a region’s economy and way of life?
44 The Union in Peril The United States The World continued . . . HOME C H A P T E RThe Union in PerilTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1851 The Great Exhibition opens in London.1852 Franklin Pierce is elected president. Uncle Tom’s Cabin published.1854 Charles Dickens’s Hard Times is published.1856 James Buchanan is elected president.1857 The Supreme Court rules against Dred Scott.1860 Abraham Lincoln wins presidential election. South Carolina secedes.1861 The Confederacy is formed. Civil War begins.1861 Russian serfs emancipated by Czar Alexander II.1863 Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg.continued . . .
54 The Union in Peril The United States The World HOME TIME LINE C H A P T E RThe Union in PerilTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1864 Maximilian of Austria becomes emperor of Mexico.1865 Civil War ends. Lincoln is assassinated; Andrew Johnson becomes president.1868 Cubans revolt against Spain.1868 Ulysses S. Grant is elected president.1876 Rutherford B. Hayes is elected president.1876 Japan forces Korea to open ports to trade.1877 Reconstruction ends.
6The Divisive Politics of Slavery S E C T I O N1The Divisive Politics of SlaveryHOMEKEY IDEAThe issue of slavery leads to increased tension and violence between the North and the South and finally brings the nation to the brink of war.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
7The Divisive Politics of Slavery S E C T I O N1The Divisive Politics of SlaveryHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWDisagreements over slavery heightened regional tensions and led to the breakup of the Union.The modern Democratic and Republican parties emerged from the political tensions of the mid-19th century.TERMS & NAMES• Harriet Tubman• Franklin Pierce• Jefferson Davis• Dred Scott• Harriet Beecher Stowe• Underground Railroad• popular sovereignty• Stephen Douglas• Abraham Lincoln• Confederacy• secessionASSESSMENT
8The Divisive Politics of Slavery S E C T I O N1The Divisive Politics of SlaveryHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List four events that heightened tensions between the North and South.Event OneEvent TwoEvent ThreeEvent FourThe Compromise of includes a new fugitive slave law1857, Dred Scott Decision Supreme Court case causes sectional passions to explode1852, Uncle Tom’s Cabin book on slavery stirs strong reactions1859, John Brown attacks Harpers Ferry attempt to start a slave uprising intensifies sectional feeling in the countrycontinued . . .
9The Divisive Politics of Slavery S E C T I O N1The Divisive Politics of SlaveryHOMEASSESSMENT2. Do you think there were any points at which civil war might have been averted? Think About:• the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act• the new political parties• the Supreme Court’s ruling in the Dred Scott decision• the election of Abraham Lincoln as president in 1860ANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES: • Yes. The Supreme Court made a major blunder in the Dred Scott decision. • No. The conflict was inevitable.continued . . .
10The Divisive Politics of Slavery S E C T I O N1The Divisive Politics of SlaveryHOMEASSESSMENT3. John Brown, Harriet Tubman, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Stephen Douglas all opposed slavery. Who do you think had the greatest impact on American history and why?ANSWERResponses should reflect understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each individual and an awareness of their contributions.continued . . .
11The Divisive Politics of Slavery S E C T I O N1The Divisive Politics of SlaveryHOMEASSESSMENT4. How did the tension between states’ rights and national government authority manifest itself in the events leading up to the Civil War?ANSWERPopular sovereignty reinforced states’ rights. The Dred Scott decision convinced many Northerners that the slave states were influencing the national government. Lincoln’s election frightened supporters of states’ rights, because he believed that Congress could abolish slavery.End of Section 1
122 The Civil War Begins KEY IDEA S E C T I O N2The Civil War BeginsMAPGRAPHHOMEKEY IDEAThe Civil War becomes a more prolonged, deadly conflict than anyone had predicted and has a significant impact on civilians, soldiers, and African Americans.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
132 The Civil War Begins OVERVIEW S E C T I O N2The Civil War BeginsMAPGRAPHHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWShortly after the nation’s Southern states seceded from the Union, war began between the North and South.The nation’s identity was forged in part by the Civil War. Sectional divisions remain very strong today.TERMS & NAMES• Fort Sumter• Robert E. Lee• Clara Barton• income tax• Emancipation Proclamation• Stonewall Jackson• Ulysses S. Grant• Bull Run• Antietam• conscriptionASSESSMENT
14S E C T I O N2The Civil War BeginsMAPGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the military actions and social and economic changes of the first two years of the Civil War.Military ActionsSocial & Economic Changes1. Bull Run1. African Americans join Union army2. Shiloh2. Food shortages in South3. Antietam3. Battlefield medicine4. First income taxcontinued . . .
15S E C T I O N2The Civil War BeginsMAPGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT2. What effects did the Civil War have on women and African Americans? Think About:• the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation• women’s role in the war effortANSWEROpportunities expanded for both groups. For example, the Emancipation Proclamation allowed African Americans to fight for the Union, and new jobs, such as nursing, opened to women.continued . . .
16S E C T I O N2The Civil War BeginsMAPGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT3. What advantages did the Union have over the South?ANSWERThe Union had greater human resources, more factories, greater food production, and a more extensive railroad system.End of Section 2
173 The North Takes Charge KEY IDEA S E C T I O N3The North Takes ChargeHOMEKEY IDEAThe South surrenders to the North. However, the war has an enduring effect on the nation and on American lives.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
183 The North Takes Charge OVERVIEW S E C T I O N3The North Takes ChargeHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAfter four years of bloody fighting, the Union wore down the Confederacy and won the war.The Union victory confirmed the authority of the federal government over the states.TERMS & NAMES• Thirteenth Amendment• Gettysburg Address• John Wilkes Booth• William Tecumseh Sherman• Appomattox Court House• Gettysburg• VicksburgASSESSMENT
19Consequences of the Civil War S E C T I O N3The North Takes ChargeHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List political, economic, physical, and social consequences of the Civil War.PoliticalFreed enslaved people; prevented disintegration of UnionStimulated economic growth of the North and contributed to economic decline of the SouthEconomicConsequences of the Civil WarPhysicalWidespread destruction of houses, livestock, and railroads in the South; increased industrialization in the NorthFamily life in both North and South disrupted by departure of millions of men to fight in the war and the high casualty rateSocialcontinued . . .
20S E C T I O N3The North Takes ChargeHOMEASSESSMENT2. Grant and Sherman used the strategy of total war. Do you think the end justifies the means? That is, did defeating the Confederacy justify harming civilians? Think About:• their reasons for targeting the civilian population• Sherman’s march through GeorgiaANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:• Yes. Saving the Union and abolishing slavery were worth the cost of civilian lives.• No. Killing defenseless citizens is immoral under any circumstances.continued . . .
21S E C T I O N3The North Takes ChargeHOMEASSESSMENT3. How did Lincoln abolish slavery in all states?ANSWERLincoln thought that a constitutional amendment would be necessary to abolish slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment was passed at the end of 1865.continued . . .
22S E C T I O N3The North Takes ChargeHOMEASSESSMENT4. Why did the Union’s victory strengthen the power of the national government?ANSWERIt ensured that states would never again threaten secession.End of Section 3
23Reconstruction and Its Effects S E C T I O N4Reconstruction and Its EffectsHOMEKEY IDEAReconstruction results in many political, social, and economic changes in the South before being ended in 1877.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
24Reconstruction and Its Effects S E C T I O N4Reconstruction and Its EffectsHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAfter the Civil War, the nation embarked on a period known as Reconstruction, during which attempts were made to readmit the South to the Union.The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, passed as part of Reconstruction, gave civil rights to Americans of all races.TERMS & NAMES• Freedmen’s Bureau• Radical Republicans• Andrew Johnson• sharecropping• Fourteenth Amendment• Fifteenth Amendment• Ku Klux Klan (KKK)• Reconstruction• scalawag• carpetbagger• Hiram RevelsASSESSMENT
25Reconstruction and Its Effects S E C T I O N4Reconstruction and Its EffectsHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List five problems facing the South after the Civil War. Then describe the solution that was attempted for each problem.ProblemAttempted SolutionReuniting North and SouthCongressional ReconstructionPhysical devastation of the SouthPublic Works ProgramsFormer slaves need assistanceFreedmen’s Bureau establishedFormer slaves need land40 acres and a mule planVigilante groups ariseEnforcement Actscontinued . . .
26Reconstruction and Its Effects S E C T I O N4Reconstruction and Its EffectsHOMEASSESSMENT2. Do you think that Reconstruction had positive effects on Southern society? Think About:• the formation of the Ku Klux Klan• why so many African Americans turned to sharecroppingANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSES:• Reconstruction’s positive effects include the Freedmen’s Bureau’s assistance to former slaves.• Reconstruction had negative effects: by trying to help former slaves it encouraged a backlash that intensified racism and led to the rise of the Ku Klux Klan; by not offering land to former slaves, it forced African Americans into sharecropping.continued . . .
27Reconstruction and Its Effects S E C T I O N4Reconstruction and Its EffectsHOMEASSESSMENT3. How did the Radical Republicans hope to reconstruct the South?ANSWERThe Radical Republicans wanted to destroy the political power of former slaveholders. They also wanted African Americans to be given full citizenship, including the right to vote.End of Section 4