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Active Learning in Latin Facilitator: Daniel O’Connor.

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1 Active Learning in Latin Facilitator: Daniel O’Connor

2 What is active learning? Active learning is learning which engages and challenges children's thinking using real-life and imaginary situations. Active learning involves students doing things and thinking about what they are doing. Active teaching and learning involves the use of strategies which maximise opportunities for interaction. What Active Learning is not. Remember the Key Skills

3 Key Skills

4 Chinese and Greeks I HEAR AND I FORGET I SEE AND I REMEMBER I DO AND I UNDERSTAND Confucius 5 th Century BCE China “One must learn by doing the thing, for though you think you know it-you have no certainty, until you try.” Sophocles 5thCentury BCE Greece

5 So how does this thinking alter the role of the teacher in the classroom?

6 New versus Old Role of the teacher Designer Designer Creator Creator ‘Scaffolder’ ‘Scaffolder’ Facilitator Facilitator Reflective practitioner Reflective practitioner Active researcher Active researcher Innovator Innovator Receptacle of knowledge. Receptacle of knowledge. Examinations expert. Examinations expert. Authoritarian Authoritarian Text Book dominated Text Book dominated Transferral methods Transferral methods Traditional Traditional

7 Concerns about cooperative/active learning Losing control Dominance by strong individuals Discussion goes off track Takes too long to set up Lecture gets through material quicker Necessary level of planning by teacher, for it to work properly, just too much. Large class sizes not conducive. Physical environment not suitable. Tradition-Parents/Students/Management

8 Some Active/Cooperative learning methods Polling Group work Think, pair, share Jigsaw Group projects Vox Pop Walking Debate Interview Hot Seat Role play Freeze Frame Brainstorming Using clickers or traffic lights(caution) TED Talks on Active Learning

9 Tasks within group…. Reader – reads task Illustrator Reporter/note taker Time Keeper – time constraints and deadlines Chairperson – keeps group on task Group critic – devil’s advocate Runner – Clarifies with the teacher, gets things Summariser and (reader of the translation) – If a Latin language exercise then all are translators – Researchers checking dictionaries etc. – Some may be assigned tasks such as picking out 5 nouns in acc plural, 5 verbs in Imperfect etc

10 Possible Roles on Teams Student teams often function most effectively when members have designated roles. These can be instructor-determined or established by the groups themselves, e.g., by giving teams a list such as the one below and asking them to decide on and delegate appropriate roles within their group. The roles you – or your students – assign will depend on the goals of the assignment, the size of the team, etc. They can be fixed or rotating. Here are some possible group roles, but the list is not exhaustive. Think creatively and come up with your own! Facilitator: Moderates team discussion, keeps the group on task, and distributes work. Recorder: Takes notes summarizing team discussions and decisions, and keeps all necessary records. ReporterServes as group spokesperson to the class or instructor, summarizing the group’s activities and/or conclusions. TimekeeperKeeps the group aware of time constraints and deadlines and makes sure meetings start on time. Devil’s AdvocateRaises counter-arguments and (constructive) objections, introduces alternative explanations and solutions. HarmonizerStrives to create a harmonious and positive team atmosphere and reach consensus (while allowing a full expression of ideas)

11 Remember our ancient thinkers! I HEAR AND I FORGET I SEE AND I REMEMBER I DO AND I UNDERSTAND Confucius 5 th Century BCE China “One must learn by doing the thing, for though you think you know it-you have no certainty, until you try.” Sophocles 5thCentury BCE Greece


13 Simon Dicit use of the Imperative followed by the action to one student and to many Currecurritestudent/s do the action Dormidormitelistening Sedesedetecomprehending and Scribescribiteconsolidating meaning Audiaudite“Sealbhaíonn gluaiseacht Ambulaambulateteanga” Laboralaborate Bibebibite Canta cantate Portaportate Tace tacite

14 Development the action followed by response from a 3 rd person Use of indicative 3 rd s. and pl. Quid facit Simon?quid faciunt Simon et Davus? Curritcurrunt Dormitdormiunt Sedetsedent Scribitscribunt Auditaudiunt Ambulaambulant Laboratlaborant Bibitbibunt Cantat cantant Portatportant Tacet tacent

15 Development the action followed by response by the actor (1 st person s.) and then by actors (1 st person pl.) Use of indicative 1 st s and pl Quid facis?quid facitis? Currocurrimus Dormiodormimus Sedeosedimus Scriboscribimus Audioaudimus Ambuloambulamus Laborolaboramus Bibobibimus Canto cantamus Portoportamus Taceotacemus

16 development Use the same method and verbs for the future and past tenses. Introduce the adverbs cotidie/hodie/heri/cras Chart with tenses – revise tenses. Quid Simon facit hodie? S. currit Quid Simon fecit heri?S. cucurrit Quid Simon faciebat? S. currebat Quid Simon faciet cras?S. curret.

17 Development the action followed by response by the actor (1 st person s.) and then by actors (1 st person pl.) Use of indicative 1 st s and pl Quid fecisti heri?Quid faciet cras? Cucurricurram Dormividormiam Sedisedebo Scripsiscribam Audiviaudiam Ambulaviambulabo Laboravilaborabo Bibibibam Cantavi cantabo Portaviportabo Tacuitacebo

18 Drama Fabula de puella dormienti (Diana Sparkes) Personae – Narrator – rana – Rex – Regina – Duodecim magae (fairies) – Aurora – Anus – Princeps

19 Preparation for the drama Fabula de puella dormienti Teach new words that occur in the play Anticipate difficulties e.g. vobis licet, si tibi placet, – Volo, fero, present subj Dona – virtus, pulchritudo, etc gratias ago, ulciscor, defixio, acus, nere, etc Read and comprehend the play Give every student a part Make props/get class to make props Ask students to read own part in silence Ask for help with meaning etc if necessary Highlight own part Learn your part??? (read) Act the drama - possibly at Assembly/Open Day etc?? Record the drama – a short film

20 Post the drama Comprehension questions Grammar points - volo, use of present subj. Vocabulary Numbers ordinal and cardinal Any other suggestions

21 Value of drama in class? Kinesthetic learning Reading, articulation and pronunciation Working in a team Developing confidence Reinforcing vocabulary and grammar Kids love it (few exceptions) Latin is not all translation and grammar!

22 Latin Bingo Teacher: calls the words e.g. villa, servus, femina, puer, puella Students need their workbook, word lists. Ask them all to refer to the same page of vocabulary, or a letter of the alphabet in an index, or the defined word list Tell them to write down five Latin words at random. First time teacher calls out the Latin words, and if they tick it, (listening to correct pronunciation.) Tick all five they have won, but they have to read the words back to check, (chance to articulate the Latin words) Next stage is to test what the words mean. So the next time Teacher calls out the English meanings, and they have got to tick it if they have the Latin equivalent.

23 Bingo Use vocab lists from Cambridge or Jun Cert Vocab list or poem or other Use deponent verbsUse 3 rd declension neuter nouns Use difficult Q words 4 th decl nouns Link to “JC defined vocab list in grammatical categories” History and civilisation also.

24 Bingo As a variation, (to build confidence) a student becomes the bingo caller. This game is effective at all levels. In the early stages it gives students a chance to look at Latin words, write them down, get them to see how Latin words are spelt, and how Latin words are pronounced. It is a very good way of them building up their literacy and their knowledge about language.

25 Bingo The pupils like Bingo because it’s a game, it’s active, it’s fun, there is a prize at the end. They learn how to translate from English to Latin and Latin to English. They learn how to say the words and how they sound. It helps to visualise the words, and it refreshes memory for revision.

26 Other Ideas Head shoulders knees and toes CORPUS – Caput, umeri, genua et digiti etc Valentines and other cards: – Ego te amo tune me amas? – Nonne me amas? – Da mihi basium (mille basia) Vivamus atque amemus. – Basia ad te mitto. – Basium/basia tibi do – Dic mihi! – Laetus/a sum si laetus/a es. – Ab amico/a tuo/a.

27 Guess the Mood/adverb quomodo sentis hodie? Teach list of adjectives as follows: Tristis, iratus, confusus, excitatus, defessus, sollicitus, perterritus, laetus, solus, confidens, frustratus, suspiciosus, cautius, infuriatus, timidus, invidius etc. Ask one to turn back to the class Give adverbs/adjectives to all Answer in manner of the adverb/adjective How are you? Quomodo es? Laetus sum. Defessus sum, confusi sumus etc.

28 Songs etc Decem urnaeTen Green Bottles Rudolphus Rosa Tralee (for Kerry people only) 20 itemsWhat is missing? Latin hangman. Speed dating show video clip from ARLT Latin in the classroom

29 Miming 2 teams One Member mimes e.g. profession rhetor, pistor, tonsor, mercator, magister, venalicius, iudex, pastor, agricola, ancilla, servus, ornatrix, haruspex, argentarius, gramaticus, rex, regina etc. The other team guesses. Argentarius es. Miles es. Esne agricola? Minime mercator sum. Same for verbs etc.

30 Music Lyric Latin O S T MUS TIS NT DE LA LA LA CD WITH SONGS Humpty dumpty Lady Ba Ba youtube (Imperfect Tense) 9fCg 9fCg

31 Call My Bluff Demonstrate the game Call my Bluff, and describe its benefits as a learning tool for Latin. Teacher: Advesperascere, so what does that mean? Pupil 1: Is it A) advertisement? Pupil 1: B) to build? Pupil 1: C) to get dark? Teacher: To get dark? Advertisement, build or get dark?

32 Notes on Call my bluff For Call My Bluff they, as a team, look through a word book, and they look for a Latin word which they hope the other teams don’t know. They then write it down, and they write down the correct meaning, it may be a little star to remind them which is the correct meaning. And then they will add two false meanings. Then one at a time each team sends somebody up to the board, they write the Latin word down, so that the others can actually see if in written form, which is very important for literacy, particularly in Latin, it is good always to see words written down. Then they ask the class does this word mean A, B, or C. The others discuss it, and try and work out, using all sorts of language clues; inference, etymology, word families, or we know that word because it has come from another English word, and then they come up with the answer. If it is right then they get a point for their team, and if the questioning team can fool every other team, and everybody’s answer is wrong, then they get an extra bonus point.

33 We should add “activities” to our classes. Sealbhaíonn gluaiseacht teanga Group work Active learning Collaborative learning Independent learning Self directed learning

34 Latin and Literacy Literacy across learning All teachers are in a position to make important contributions to developing and reinforcing young people’s literacy skills. Latin and classics teachers are uniquely placed to do this and to enrich the students’ literary skills in a special way.

35 Latin in the Classroom ARLT point out similarities with English and other languages quis-quid, etc.? quo instrumento? quo? ubi? unde? quo modo? cur? quam ob rem? quando? qualis? quantus-a-um? quot? quotus-a-um? quotiens? quo consilio? qua de causa? qua condicione? utrum... an? who, what, to whom, etc.? with what? to what place? in what place? from what place? how? why? when? of what sort? how big? how many? the "what-th"? how often? for what purpose? for what reason? on what condition? (whether)... or? (Case) (Ablative/Dative) (ad, in,) (in, Locative) (a, ex,) (Adverb) (quia) (ob, propter,) (Temporal phrase) (Adjective of quality) (Adjective of quantity) (Cardinal) (Ordinal) (Numeral adverb) (ut) (Gerund(ive) & causa) (Conditional clause)

36 Grammar Terms verbum, nomen, adiectivum, adverbium, pronomen, praepositio, supinum, gerundium participium, Verb, noun, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, supine, gerund, participle

37 Gender number and case casus nominativus vocativus, accusativus, genitivus, dativus, ablativus, locativus masculini, feminini, neutrius generis singulariter, pluraliter prima, secunda, etc. persona Nominative case, Vocative, accusative Genitive, dative Ablative, locative of the masculine, feminine, neuter gender in the single, plural, first person, etc.

38 Tenses and moods tempus praesens, futurum, imperfectum, perfectum, plusquamperfectum, futurum et perfectum (or futurum exactum) modus indicativus, imperativus, subiunctivus, gerundivus, infinitivus voce activa, passiva, Present tense Future Imperfect, perfect Pluperfect Indicative mood Imperative, subjunctive Gerundive, infinitive active and passive Voice

39 More common terms use every opportunity to make the connections gradus positivus, comparativus, superlativus conjugare, declinare sententia oratio recta, oratio obliqua degrees of comparison comparative superlative to conjugate, decline sentence Direct, indirect speech

40 Classroom vocabulary ludus cella, conclave creta tabula (nigra/alba) fenestra ianua, porta sella cathedra [baculum] charta, pagina Liber/libri libellus atramentum stiles, calamus school room chalk blackboard window door chair master's chair stick paper, page Book/books notebook ink pencil, pen

41 Using these terms make the students more aware and active in the Latin class. magister magister summus, supremus toga magistri discipulus puella horologium tintinnabulum sonat salve-ete vale-ete conside, sede tace-ete noli exclamare pensum master headmaster gown pupil girl clock the bell rings good-morning, afternoon goodbye sit down shut-up don't shout homework

42 Using these terms make the students more aware and active in the Latin class. claude, aperi incipe perge, pergamus satis animum attende specta magna voce, clara voce recita noli dormire redi ad sellam veni huc mane hic Abi/abite close, open begin go on, let us go on enough attend look at in a loud, clear voice read aloud wake up go back to your seat come here stay here go away

43 Using these terms make the students more aware and active in the Latin class. Ita (vero) minime nolite colloqui cape cretam scribe, describe in tabula intellegisne? explica quis explicare potest? Latine aliter Latine quid significat? yes no don't chatter take the chalk write, draw on.... do you understand? explain who can explain? in Latin in another way what does it mean?

44 iterum frustra fortasse quod tempus? quis modus? cuius generis? quota est pagina? quotus est versus? festina, celeriter again in vain perhaps what tense? what mood? what gender? which page? which line? hurry up

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