2 “Great speakers aren’t born, they are trained.” Presenting is a Skill…Developed through training and experience
3 Agenda Introduction Planning your presentation The presentation sequenceCreating effective visual aidsEffective presentation techniques
4 Peter Masucci – Teaching Experience UNH, Whittemore School of Business & Economics, Durham, NHUndergraduate coursesADMN 651 – Principles of MarketingMGT 732 – Explorations in Entrepreneurial ManagementMGT 755 – International ManagementMKTG 752 – Marketing ResearchMKTG 757 – Advertising and Integrated Marketing CommunicationsMKTG 762 – Marketing WorkshopMKTG 763 – Market Opportunities AnalysisMKTG 798 – Advertising WorkshopGraduate coursesADMN 852 – Marketing Research, MBAADMN 898 – Advertising and Integrated Marketing Communications, MBAADMN 898 – New Product Development, MBAADMN 960 – Marketing Management, MBAMOT 898 – Market Research for Emerging Technologies, MS MOTMOT 941 – Product Development and Marketing, MS MOTSimmons College, Boston, MAGraduate School, Master’s in Communications Management Program (MCM)MCM 442 – Emerging Communications TechnologiesMCM 451 – Advertising and Integrated Marketing CommunicationsMCM 453 – Strategic Marketing PlanningMCM 458 – Online Marketing
5 Peter Masucci – Professional Experience 2001 VX Management Group, Founding PartnerManagement and marketing consulting1998 Open Market/FutureTense, VP Business DevelopmentInternet content management and transaction processing software1998 Saradam Telemedicine Systems, Founder and CEORemote medical services delivered via videoconferencing over the Internet1996 PictureTel, VP MarketingVideoconferencing equipment and services1994 Sequoia Systems, VP MarketingHigh-performance, fault-tolerant business computer systems1986 Alliant Computer Systems, VP International OperationsHigh-performance, scientific supercomputer systems1973 Digital Equipment, various marketing management positionsPCs, minicomputer systems, embedded real-time computers, semiconductors1970 Rockwell International Space Division, Project EngineerApollo moon missions and Skylab space station programs1967 NASA – Electronics Research Center, Research AssistantTrajectory analysis planning for deep space probesEducation:Boston University, BS in Aerospace EngineeringClark University, MBA with concentration in marketing
13 Planning Your Presentation Determine purposeWhat do you want to accomplish?Know your audience !!!Success depends on your ability to reach your audienceSizeDemographicsKnowledge levelMotivationWhy are they attending?What do THEY expect?
14 More Planning Plan Space What Day and Time? Number of attendees and seatsSeating arrangementLighting, and lighting controlsAudio/Visual equipmentDistractersWhat Day and Time?MorningAfternoonEveningWork day versus weekendAny day!
15 Still More Planning Organization Rehearse…Rehearse…Rehearse!! Determine main points (1-5)EvidenceTransitionsPrepare outlinePrepare a StoryboardRehearse…Rehearse…Rehearse!!In the actual room if possibleWork to a script and time your presentationPractice Q & ACheck equipment – load your slides in advanceMake contingency plans
16 Organizing Your Presentation Organizational patternsTopicalChronologicalProblem/SolutionCause/Effect
17 Presentation Outline Keyword reminders Conversational flow Flexibility More responsive to audience
20 #1: Build Rapport … relation marked by harmony or affinity Audience members need to trust you and feel that you care about themStart before you beginMingle; learn namesOpportunity to reinforce or correct audience assessmentGood first impressionPeople listen to people they like
21 #2: Opening Your Presentation Introduce yourselfWhy should they listenGet attention, build more rapport, introduce topicHumorShort storyStartling statisticMake audience thinkInvite participationGet audience response
22 #2…Completing the Opening Clearly defining topicIf informative…Clear parameters for content within timeIf persuasive…What’s the problemWho caresWhat’s the solutionOverview
23 #3: Presenting Main Points Make point-transition,…make point-transition,…make point-transition, etc…Supporting evidenceExamplesFeedback & questions from audienceAttention to, and focus on, audience… are they listening?
24 #4: Concluding Your Presentation GoalInform audience that you’re about to closeSummarize main points“Tell ’em What You Told ‘em.”Something to remember, or call-to-actionAnswer questions
26 Designing Good Slides Content Unveiling Color Subliminal messages If it doesn’t add value, don’t say/use itUnveilingIs drama useful or necessary?ColorKnow your room and lightingDark room – use light font on dark backgroundBright room – use dark font on light backgroundSubliminal messagesConsider your audience and use carefully
27 Content Purpose Density Complement speaker Talk ≠ technical report 7-10 lines/page4-8 words/lineTest: Project a sample in the room, or in a room of approximately the same size as will be used in the real presentation
28 Visual Aids To make, explain or identify a point To emphasize, clarify or reinforce a pointTo remind, summarize or review a pointWe remember –10% of what we read20% of what we hear30% of what we see50% of what we see and hear
29 Visual Aids Enhance understanding Add variety Support claims Lasting impactUsed poorly, however, they can be a distraction and lead to an ineffective presentation
30 Visual Aids PowerPoint slides Overhead transparencies Graphs/charts PicturesWeb links (http://www.unh.edu/uacc/unhpathways.html )Films/videoFlip chartsSketchesChalk or white board
31 Visual Aids Should… Outline, explain, support main points Serve audience’s needs, not speaker’sBe simple and clearSupplement and support… NOT DOMINATE! the presentation
32 Be Visible Use Sans Serif fonts (fonts without feet) e.g. Arial, Tahoma, Trebuchet, Verdana, etc.Titles should be pt. font size, BOLDText should be as large as possibleFirst level pt font sizeSecond level pt font sizeEtc.Use color wiselyContrasting colors
33 Red/Blue Conflict Red letters on blue background creates “flicker effect”Blue letters on red backgroundjust as bad
34 Low Contrast White on yellow Yellow on white Black on blue Blue on black
35 Be CONSISTENT throughout presentation! “Fly-In” vs “Wipe”Could you read this?How about this one?Maybe the third time is the charm!Less distractingReduces eye movementIncreases readabilityBe CONSISTENT throughout presentation!
36 Eye Movement The “Z” Rule Upper leftUpper rightLower leftLower right
38 What Makes an Effective Speaker? Control of informationThe voice usedThe right wordsUse of body languagePrompts, scripts and notesThe right locationUseful and meaningful visual aids
39 Vocal Techniques Loudness Pitch Rate Pause for effect Will you be using a microphone?PitchVary to make pointsRateWatch your audiencePause for effectAllow time for message to “sink in”Deviate from the norm for emphasis
40 The VoiceC: Clear – the use of simple, easily understood words and phrasesL: Loud (enough) – it is important that everyone can hear youA: Assertive – a bright and confident air born of knowledge of the subject and good preparationP: Pause – it is essential to allow the listeners time to digest what you have said
41 Use the Rights WordsWhat you say, and how you say it, is the key to a successful presentation:P – state your position or pointR – explain your ideasE – use examplesP – restate your position or point
42 Use of Body Language Make eye contact Use your hands, but don’t go crazyIf possible move around, but slowly!DON’T speak with your back to the audience
43 Body Language Make eye contact,…but move focus around the audience Use your hands,…but don’t go crazyIf possible move around,…but slowly!Maintain good postureMake sure everyone can see youDON’T speak with your back to the audience
44 Scripts and NotesLearn and use a script for formal presentations to large groupsSmall note cards, or PPT notes page, can be used, but FIRST write a scriptUnderline key words that will best remind you what you want to sayUse one card for each slide or topicIf possible, have someone else advance slides for you
45 Speaker Reads Slides Psst! This slide is way too busy! A speaker may put his entire presentation on his slides. He turns his back to the audience and reads the slides aloud. Perhaps he feels this approach guarantees all the information will get to the audience.This may be the most annoying way to give a presentation. Audience members feel insulted: they already know how to read! They wonder why the lecturer doesn’t simply hand out a copy of the slides.The visual presentation dominates the presenter. The presenter is not adding any value to what is on the slides.Psst! This slide is way too busy!
46 Common Problems Verbal fillers Swaying, rocking, and pacing “Um”, “uh”, “like”, “you guys”Any unrelated word or phraseSwaying, rocking, and pacingHands in pocketsLip smackingFidgetingFailure to be audience-centered
48 Control of Information Know your subject wellKnow what you are talking aboutPracticeMore practiceMore rehearsals- in front of the mirror- in front of colleagues or friends- in front of family membersBelieve in yourselfKnow your opening by heart
49 Closing Summary Audience is always attentive at the begining Somewhat less attentive in the middleGenerally more attentive at the endTell them what you are going to sayThen say itAt the end, say it againAllow time for questions
50 Questions and Answers Opportunities Welcoming gestures Focusing gaze Body languageGetting pointReinforcing messageIncluding audiencePitfallsHostile gesturesWandering gazeBody languageMissing pointSeeking approvalExcluding audience
51 5 Presentation TipsSmileBreatheWaterNotesFinish on, or under time