Chapter 8: An Agrarian Society Section 1: A State of Yeoman FarmersA State of Yeoman Farmers Section 2: Masters and SlavesMasters and Slaves
Section 1: A State of Yeoman Farmers ESSENTIAL QUESTION – What was life like in North Carolina in the early 1800s?
Section 1: A State of Yeoman Farmers What words do I need to know? 1.yeoman 2.subsistence farming 3.spinning wheel 4.loom 5.blacksmith 6.cooper 7.neighborhood 8.barter 9.clubbing 10.muster day 11.court week 12.justice of the peace 13.camp meeting
Section 1: A State of Yeoman Farmers Introduction Most residents were yeoman who farmed land they or a relative owned. Yeoman life was organized around families, seasons, and neighborhoods. Couples married when the man had his own land to farm. Weddings were simple and there were no honeymoons.
Subsistence Farming Subsistence farming – feeding your family first from what is grown. Grains (corn, wheat, oats) and tobacco were important crops. Most families had a spinning wheel to turn cotton or wool into yarn. People depended on neighbors for goods and services.
Subsistence Farming (cont.) JOBTASK WeaverUsed looms to make cloth BlacksmithMade shoes for animals and repaired tools CooperMade barrels for storing items
The Neighborhood Economy Neighborhoods were 5 to 8 miles across, with a central meeting place. Bartering: trading one item or service for another. Neighborhood people bartered. Each neighborhood had 1 or 2 churches and people were obligated to them. Click here to return to Main Menu.
Clubbing and Drovering Clubbing: neighborhood’s surplus crops taken by one neighbor to market Clubbing was done in the fall, and took 2 weeks, ending with a harvest festival. Drovers: men who took livestock to market. The Buncombe Turnpike was the most used drover’s trail.Buncombe Turnpike Click here to return to Main Menu.
Life Outside the Neighborhood Muster Day: twice a year, men trained to defend the state and goods were traded. Court Week: four times a year a justice of the peace came to settle court cases, goods were traded, and people socialized. Camp Meetings: held in August, weekend of religious services. Election Day: held in August, men came to vote, festivities held. Click here to return to Main Menu.
Life Outside the Neighborhood Christmas was celebrated at home with a big meal. For “double Christmas”, neighbors gathered on December 26 th to feast and play. All levels of society attended these events. Click here to return to Main Menu.
Section 2: Masters and Slaves ESSENTIAL QUESTION – What was life like for a slave in North Carolina?
Section 2: Masters and Slaves What words do I need to know? 1.plantation 2.staple crop 3.artisan 4.emancipation 5.slave code 6.quarters 7.free black
Section 2: Masters and Slaves Introduction North Carolina was a slave state.slave state Slavery was not as dominant as in other states.other states About one-fourth of the population was slaves. Most slave-holding families owned only one slave.
Slavery in North Carolina Every county had slaves.county Most slaves were in the area where the Tidewater met the Coastal Plain because: 1. The soil was some of the best. 2. Lands were close enough to ports to make marketing costs low. The number of slaves in an area was related mostly to the type of soil there. Plantations: farms organized to produce subsistence and surplus crops. Staple crops: tobacco and corn
Life and Labor on a Plantation Plantations were usually operated by a white family with more than 20 slaves. Plantations used slave labor to clear and cultivate land. Some plantations taught slaves to be artisans (skilled craftsperson). Plantations organized gang work to cultivate and harvest fields. Some plantations became their own neighborhoods, with stores, schools, and even a doctor.
Prominent Plantations Somerset Place in Washington County was carved out by slaves. It was run by the Collins family. They made money from corn and had 20 slave cabins.Somerset Place Fairntosh in Durham County was the largest in the state, with a cluster of 6 farms. It was owned by the Cameron family, who had their own chapel and school.
The Condition of African Americans Two conditions making a person a slave: –He or she had to be at least partially African American. –His or her mother had to have been a slave. emancipation: a slave was legally freed by a master.
The Slave Code The slave code outlined the social, economic, and physical place of slaves. Slaves had no freedom of movement. They needed permission to go anywhere. Slaves were denied advancement. They could not learn to read or write, or marry.
Life in the Slave Quarters Slaves lived in one room homes made of logs.Slaves Most slaves had their own gardens. Quarters: the area of slave housing. Slaves bonded, held religious services, and sang songs from Africa. Slaves could be beaten, or sold and sent away at any time.
Free People of Color Freed blacks were treated poorly. Most worked daily on farms or became tradesmen. Almost 200 free blacks owned slaves, partly to not be owned by whites. Some free blacks became successful craftsmen and businessmen. Life began to improve for all North Carolinians. Click here to return to Main Menu.