Normanization of England Course Title : Development of English Language Course Code: ENG (109) Date of Submission: 27 th July, 2013
Submitted By 1) Boby Rani 2) Mita Roy 3) Joysree Ghosh 4) Nafis Kamal 5) Tashnim Sazzad Submitted To Keya Chakraborty Lecturer of English
The English name "Normans" comes from the French words Normans/Normanz, plural of Normant, modern French normand, which is itself borrowed from Old low Franconian Nortmann "Northman"or directly from Old Norse Norðmaðr, Latinized in Nortmannus (recorded in Medieval Latin, 9th century) to mean "Norseman" or "Viking".
The Normans were Vikings who began to settle in northern France in the late 9th century. They soon adopted the French language and Christianity. In the year 1066 an army of Normans under Duke William (later called "the Conqueror") crossed the English Channel and defeated the English king Harold at the Battle of Hastings.
The Normans originated from a band of Norwegian Vikings that settled near Rouen in Northern France. Norman is a tropical wave, in Normandy. They were descended from Viking conquerors of the territory and the native population of mostly Frankish and Gallo- Roman stock. Where Did the Normans Come from? Where Did the Normans Come from?
Normandy is a name that means 'land of the northern folk'. It is of French origin and it is a variant form of the name Norman die. The name is commonly used as a girl name or female name. What is the Meaning of the Name Normandy? What is the Meaning of the Name Normandy?
The Norman conquest of England was the 11th- century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later William the Conqueror. The Norman conquest changed the hole course of the English language.
The Norman monarchy was closely linked to the Church - William I's invasion of England was endorsed by Pope Alexander II (1061-73), and Pope Gregory VII (1073-85) had long been William's friend and advisor. Soon after the Conquest, William I began the Normanization of the English Church. He co-operated with the Pope in the removal and imprisonment of the Anglo-Saxon Archbishop of Canterbury, Stigand (who starved himself to death, 1072). Durham Cathedral,almost completely rebuilt during the Norman period
Edward becomes king of England Godwin, earl of the west saxon earldon becomes Edwards advisor Harold, son of Godwin becomes earl after his father death King Edwards dies childless and Harold becomes king William, duke of Normandy and second cousin of the former king oposes Edward Edward becomes king of England Godwin, earl of the west saxon earldon becomes Edwards advisor Harold, son of Godwin becomes earl after his father death King Edwards dies childless and Harold becomes king William, duke of Normandy and second cousin of the former king oposes Edward The year 1066
In September William landed at Pevensey, In the south coast of England. His landing was unopposed. King Harold was occupied in the north of England meeting an invasion by the king of Norway, another claimant to the throne. Hardly had Harold triumphed over the invaders when word reached him of Williams landing. Harold was killed during the battle. The English capitulated and on Christmas day 1066, William was crowned king of England. In September William landed at Pevensey, In the south coast of England. His landing was unopposed. King Harold was occupied in the north of England meeting an invasion by the king of Norway, another claimant to the throne. Hardly had Harold triumphed over the invaders when word reached him of Williams landing. Harold was killed during the battle. The English capitulated and on Christmas day 1066, William was crowned king of England.
The Normans crossed to England a few days after Harold's victory over the Norwegians, following the dispersal of Harold's naval force. They landed at Pevensey in Sussex on 28 September and erected a wooden castle at Hastings. Harold, after defeating his brother Tostig and Harold Hardrada in the north, left much of his force there, including Morcar and Edwin, and marched the rest of his army south to deal with the threatened Norman invasion. It is unclear when Harold learned of William's landing, but it was probably while he was travelling south.
Took place in 1066, at Seniac Hill Two sides were the Normans and the English Around 8000 men died Harold was killed The Normans won and William was crowned the King of England
The day after the battle, Harold's body was identified, either by his armour or marks on his body. The bodies of the English dead, who included some of Harold's brothers and his housecarls, were left on the battle field, although some were removed by relatives later. Gytha, Harold's mother, offered the victorious duke the weight of her son's body in gold for its custody, but her offer was refused. William ordered that Harold's body was to be thrown into the sea, but whether that took place is unclear. Another story relates that Harold was buried at the top of a cliff. Waltham Abbey, which had been founded by Harold, later claimed that his body had been buried there secretly. Later legends claimed that Harold did not die at Hastings, but escaped and became a hermit at Chester.
One of the most important of these consequences was the introduction of a new nobility. For several generations after the conquest the important positions and the great states were almost always held by Norman or men of foreign blood.
It is interesting to find a considerable body of French literature being produced in England from the beginning of the twelfth century, addressed to English patrons and directed toward meeting their special tests and interests. French literature at the English Court French literature at the English Court
A bronze lion sculpture attributed to an Italo- Norman artist. Now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.Metropolitan Museum of Art In the visual arts, the Normans did not have the rich and distinctive traditions of the cultures they conquered. Visual arts
Normandy was the site of several important developments in the history of classical music in the 11th century.classical music
The Normans' architecture typically stands out as a new stage in the architectural history of the regions which they subdued. Architecture
1) Upper Class( Knowledge of English among the upper class) 2) Middle Class ( Knowledge of English among the upper class)
Knowledge of English was not uncommon at the end of this century among those who habitually used French, that among churchmen and men of education it was even to be expected, and that among those whose activities brought them into contact with both upper and lower classes ability to speak both languages was quiet general.
Among the nightly class French seems to have been cultivated even when the mother tongue was English. Next to the knights the inhabitants of towns probably contained the largest number of this among the middle class who new French. In many towns, especially in important trading centers, men with Norman names were the most prominent burgesses and probably constituted a majority of the merchant class.
A huge body of French words were ultimately to become part of the English vocabulary, many of these continuing side by side with there English equivalent, such as “sacred” and “holy”, “legal” and “lawful”, “stench” and “aroma”, etc. Many French words replaced English ones, So that before the end of the 14 th century Chaucer was able to use a vast store of new words such as “courage” in place of “heartness,” of so on. English became vastly enriched, more cosmopolitan, sharing its Teutonic and Romance traditions. Conclusion