Presentation on theme: "DBQ Early Global Economy Aspects of trade, motivations and complexities."— Presentation transcript:
DBQ Early Global Economy Aspects of trade, motivations and complexities
Global flow of silver can be economic, political or grouped by commodities like silver
Doc #2 Source: merchant Chang Han on foreign trade in China, c Merchants boast that their wisdom and ability are such as to give them a free hand in affairs. They believe that they know all the possible transformations in the universe and therefore can calculate all the changes in the human world, and that the rise and fall of prices are under their command POV of merchant after Ming Dynasty begins its period of isolation and before the silverization by Spain (1517) remember, merchants were not well regarded in China. This one particularly looks down on the boastfulness of foreign merchants (perhaps Japanese in Tokugawa or European cominto Canton and Macao. Perhaps it serves as foreboding or a warning of the inflation yet to come
Doc #3 Ibn Khaldun on trade in general (POV Khaldun was an Arab economist) most of the methods it employs are tricks aimed at making a profit by securing the difference between the buying and selling prices, and by appropriating the surplus. This is why [religious] Law allows the use of such methods, which, although they came under the heading of gambling, yet do not constitute the taking without return of other people’s goods… Kaldun discusses how without laws and regulations (Sharia) would be tricky and implies it would be wrong (POV religious or Arab and/or cultural). Remember, the Arab world controlled great maritime and overland trade in the post-classical world (look at the date :1370)
Document # 4 Document # 4Source: biography written by Reginald of Durham on St. Godric, c European source around the time of Age of exploration and conquest “Hence he made great profit in all his bargains, and gathered much wealth in the sweat of his brow; for he sold dear in one place the wares which he had bought elsewhere at a small price.” Could be cultural (St. Godric or definitiely a European source (as opposed to the earlier Chinese and Arab sources). Hansaeatic cities like Flanders and Scotland are mentioned (Commercial Revolution) and could help to evaluate why/how Europe becomes competitive
Doc #5 Doc #5 Source: Thomas Mun, from England’s Treasure By Foreign Trade, “The ordinary means therefore to increase our wealth and treasure is by Foreign Trade, wherein wee must ever observe this rule; to sell more to strangers yearly than wee consume of theirs in value. For suppose that when this Kingdom is plentifully served with the Cloth, Lead, Tin, Iron, Fish and other native commodities, we doe yearly export the overplus to foreign Countreys to the value of twenty-two hundred thousand pounds; by which means we are enabled beyond the Seas to buy and bring in foreign wares for our use and Consumptions, to the value of twenty hundred thousand pounds” This European source indicates the measure of English mercantilism and the wish to maintain a favorable balance of trade with respect to foreign markets.
Doc 6 Doc 6 Source: Manila galleons docked in a Filipino harbor readying for their voyage across the Pacific Ocean Illustration indicates Spanish Galleons sneaking silver into China’s southern cities (Macao and Canton) can be grouped with Doc #1 or as Spain or under the commodity of silver (remember Tuesday’s DBQ?)
Doc #7 Doc #7 Source: Proclamation to Christopher Columbus for his first voyage from Fernando and Isabela, Privileges and Prerogatives, 1492 and it is hoped that by God’s assistance, some of the said islands and Continent in the ocean will be discovered and conquered by your means and conduct, therefore it is but just and reasonable, that since you expose yourself to such danger to serve us, you should be rewarded for it. This document exposes the motivations for Columbus (Glory or Gold, perhaps God) which is how all of these documents could be grouped but also exposes the royal patronage of Spain to the private enterprises of joint stock companies like documents #4 and 5
Document #8 depicting Europe’s entrance into Indian Ocean trade This map allows the reader to evidence important explorations And motivations (God, Gold and Glory) by primarily Spanish And Portugese merchants to tap into Indian Ocean markets (for Spices, sugar and markets in Africa and Asia) can be grouped Economically, by Spain and Portugal or by royal patronage)
Doc #9 Doc #9 Source: Bullion for Goods - European and Indian Merchants in the Indian Ocean Trade, , Om Prakash As far as Asia was concerned, the commercial operations of the European corporate enterprises as well as private traders in the Indian Ocean region between the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries had far reaching consequences for the economies and the polities of the countries of the region. Asian merchants engaged in the Indian Ocean trade interacted with the European intruders into the Ocean in a variety of ways. This can be grouped politically, economically or by Europe’s entrance ( remember Spain and Portugal had royal patronage whilst England, France and the Dutch had private enterprises) this can be grouped with Document #8 in terms of European arrival or by motivations ( God, not much but gold and glory for profits and lucrative trade of Indian Ocean goods)
Doc #10 Doc #10 Source: A Taste of Paradise: Cinnamon by Troy David Osborne the free trade that had previously existed in those regions essentially ceased to exist. Increased demand for spices, spiraling customs duties, and the inadequate capacity of overland trade caravans spurred the search for new routes to Asia by Europeans eager to take part in the lucrative spice trade. This narrative provides for historical context as to the motivations for Europeans to engage in the Spice trade. This can e grouped economically, by Europe in general or by commodities like spices which drove the global market.
Thesis Interregional trading networks in the post-classical world were dominated by Muslim and Chinese merchants both overland and maritime guided by major commodities like sugar, spice and other luxury products. When Europe tapped into the pre-existing markets and commodities, they were guided by both by the motivations of religion, royal sponsorship and private enterprises. European entrance into the Indian Ocean and Pacific would be greatly strengthened by its capacity to link its newly discovered global sources of land (resources), labor (coercive practices) and capital ( vast markets) which would help advance its agenda of establishing a favorable balance of trade. A document illustrating the ration of exports to imports from the Arab and/or Chinese markets would provide a stronger understanding to just how long it took Europeans (Spanish, Portugese, Dutch, French and English) to begin its ascension into the global marketplace.