Where do they go to? Sperm donation/single/lesbians: Denmark Egg donation:The Czech Republic, Spain, Greece, Russia Surrogacy: USA, India
Where do they get information from? InternetPatient networks FriendsDoctors Sweden73,6 %9,4 %24,5 %13,2 % Germany65,04,011,935,6 Italy25,31,525,855,2 Shenfield m.fl. Human Reproduktion, 2010
Thompson, C. (2005). Making Parents. The Ontological Choreography of Reproductive Technologies. Cambridge: The MIT Press. Inhorn, M. (2009). Reproductive Disruptions. Gender, Technology, and Biopolitics in the New Millennium. New York & Oxford: Berghahn Books. Mamo, L. (2007). Queering reproduction: Achieving pregnancy in the age of technoscience. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Waldby, C.; Cooper, M (2008). The Biopolitics of Reproduction. Post-Fordist Biotechnology and Women’s Clinical Labour. Australian Feminist Studies. Vol. 23 no. 55, Bharadwaj, A. (2008). Biosociality and biocrossings: encounters with assisted conception and embryonic stem cells in India (pp ). In S. Gibbon & C. Novas (Eds.). Biosocialities, Genetics and the Social Sciences. Making biologies and identities. Oxon: Routledge
Theoretical Frameworks on the Global Movement of Bodies and Babies 1.Global care chains (Ehrenreich & Hochschild, Yeates) 2.Reproscapes / reproflows (Inhorn) 3.Performativity (Stacey)
Men and women ‘flowing’ across transnational borders in search of reproductive ‘assistance’; and of reproductive ‘assistors’ who ‘flow’ and are ‘flown’ to other countries in transnational reproductive networks (Inhorn 2010, p. 184). Tissues that move from bodies to tissue banks to laboratories to other bodies bring with them variously ontological values around identity, affective values around kinship, aging, and death, belief systems and ethical standards, and epistemological values and systems of research prestige, as well as use values and exchange values (Walby & Mitchell 2006, p. 34).
Legislative context: Egg donation in Denmark: altruism mixes with gender equality Egg donation in Spain: altruism mixes with maternal rights
Danish context: Mimicking the natural (”individuals who are permitted to making use of reproductive technologies should age-wise represent the age corresonding to when you naturally have children” (p. 12, Law on Artifical Insemination) Compensation practices: Are eggs equal to sperm? Or is egg donation more artificial than sperm donation? Altruism as a socially more acceptable feminine behavior
Spanish context: ”Women helping women” – a new pan-femininity in which Danish women regain their femininity through the use of another woman’s eggs Discourse of maternal rights Eggs as ”excess material” Economic compensation = reward
How do Danish recipients construct idealized “Spanish” donor bodies? How is motherhood negotiated and re-articulated in the making of Danish babies through “Spanish” eggs? Specific study:
Egg donation in the clinical discourses ”The donor delivers her ova (eggs) which will be brought together with spermatozoa, and the embryos resulting from this will be transferred to the receptor woman, who will thus fulfil her wish thanks to the anonymous and unselfish help of another woman” (http://www.ivi.es/en/treatment/ova- donation_20.aspx)
(in)fertile stories: Intent Genetics Biology
It was extremely challenging for me (to go to Spain) because I was all alone and because I have been raised as well as I have... to be a good girl... You don’t do something like that. It is illegal... So the first ticket I bought for Spain and went down to them well I was almost feeling like I had to tiptoe around to not get caught. Then after a while you get more professional. But it is really humiliating... Interview with Rita September 2010.
The doing of motherhood Yes, I would like to be pregnant. Yes, I would like to nurse and I would love to have a baby. This is what all my girlsfriends and my siblings have gotten. And the older I get, the more I realize that this is a big part of it for me also (interview with Lone, september 2011) In reality when I saw it. You only see the two eggs right. There was not only one egg but two eggs … one had developed into six cells and the other into seven cells and that is great. I did feel like…. They are mine. I want you to develop. I am going to take care of you know (interview with Lone, september 2011).
Imagining donors, eggs, and nationality……………
The descriptions of recipients’ desires regarding donor traits in transnationally trafficked eggs congeal aspects of the racialized national body. They do so in a way that incorporates ideas about hybridity and self- improvement through mixing. The parents of the ova donation children hope that their children will be a better mixture than they are, and that they come from better stock, that is European stock (Nahman 2006, p. 208).
Ruth: There is a woman who wanted to help another couple and... I imagine someone who must have a lot of faith in people so of-course... I will always, in some way, be indebted to this woman because without her, it would not be able to happen (emotional with tears). But I see her more as a woman who chooses to help other people. Interviewer: Would you like to meet her if you could? Ruth: No, I have no need for that. And I am also thinking that it would not be that appropriate as far as the child is concerned... but that is because I am thinking that it is… that it is not… I am thinking that to be a mother… if it was adoption it would be entirely different because, then, she has carried the child and given birth to it. And then, the situation is entirely different. It also creates an emotional connection through the pregnancy, carrying it… whereas egg donation…the women who… well I think that the women who donate are not connected to their eggs in this way. (Interview with Ruth, August 2011).
I also feel like for instance with Russia... Then, I would prefer a Spanish child—mentally... I mean their mentality... And and... it is funny because she is just like that. Whether it is me or the way we live or... She is happy and outgoing and easy and charming and loves other people (kissing sounds) and it... My brother has been married to a Russian which was really quite the experience, I must say... And it... Whether or not we have a national soul? I really dont know but but I do think that people in Spain are so warm and friendly in a way that we are missing some of here at home and really are missing in Russia Interview with Rita September, 2010
“They say that Latvian women are very attractive—but really… have you ever seen an attractive Latvian woman?” Interview with fertility doctor, Trianglen Copenhagen, April 2010.
But I also say about her... I also say that I am more and more convinced that it is Antonio Banderras (laughs)... The more I look at her... The more convinced I am... Antonio Banderras... And people look at me (laughs)... Because she looks like one like that right... Interview with Rita September 2010.
Egg donation as a way to regain ”your” femininity…..
Interview with Rita, recipient of egg and sperm donation in IVI Barcelona: They (the egg donors) come and go in the IVI clinic just like we do.... So we are all sitting in that waiting room right... But you can clearly see that young Spanish women walk in one door and older European women walk in the other door (laughs). Yeah... really. I am not at all in doubt who is who when you walk in the door. And funny enough... Sometimes you wonder :”Is she the one?”. Well, of- course she is not because she has already been there and so on... And and... None of them looked like they were dying of starvation or oppressed or anything... I remember one who came swaying through the waiting room with hips, big breasts and the whole nine yards and the entire waitingroom was like (shows her mouth dropping and laughs)... And she went right into the room where it was all taking place...Wow...
reviewing the making of ”own” children through fertility travel: less emphasis on shared genes, more emphasis on shared biology less emphasis on the market, more emphasis on desire, longing for a child, and choices
The fight to get there… if we ever get there. I think it is fair to say that I already love this child because I have had to go through so many processes in my head to get to this (interview with Line, august 2010).