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Fish pass assessment by remote control: Towards a framework for quantifying the hydraulics at fish pass entrances Thomas Kriechbaumer 1, Kim Blackburn 1, Andrew Gill 1, Toby Breckon 2, Nick Everard 3, Ros Wright 3, Monica Rivas Casado 1 1. Target – fish passage at barriers with minimal delay 2. Project aim This project aims to develop a framework for the rapid quantification of near-pass hydraulics with Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) deployed from radio-controlled boats. The initial steps focus on alleviating the major limitations of current ADCP technology. 3. Why ADCPs? 4. Initial results Identifying ADCP limitations On rivers, ADCPs are primarily deployed for discharge measurements. Their use beyond this purpose requires careful considerations of data quality. Fish pass monitoring studies of the last decades indicate passage efficiencies below 50% at many fish passes globally, especially for non-salmonid species. Frequently, this is due to unfavourable near- pass hydraulic conditions, masking the fish pass entrance. Fig.1. Strong competing flows and potentially weak attraction at a vertical slot pass on the River Severn, Shrewsbury, 13/12/2012 Fig.2. Possible hydraulic features downstream a weir with a fish pass; strong flows over the barrier and recirculation zones are masking the pass entrance.. Advancing radio-control ADCP deployment A small-sized radio-control ADCP platform has been developed to facilitate data collection at fish passes in small rivers. It includes a data-logging system for multiple-sensor integration and the hardware for autonomous platform control to facilitate the implementation of sampling strategies. Water depth [m) Distance made good (m) Fig.3. ADCP-measured water velocities and depths Water velocity [ms -1 ] ADCPs enable the rapid collection of vast amounts of data on water velocity and depth, from which other hydraulic variables can be derived. Fig.4. New platform carrying a RiverSurveyor M9 ADCP on the River Thames at Eynsham, 06/02/2014 Developing spatial ADCP data referencing approaches beyond GPS Platform track 20m Near river banks, vegetation can limit sky view to navigation satellites. A low number of satellites “in view” and unfavourable satellite geometry (high horizontal dilution of precision – HDOP) lead to degraded GPS position accuracy. Fig.5. GPS performance assessment on the River Avon at Pershore, 12/12/2012 a) To overcome GPS limitations, an ADCP positioning system based on stereo-vision (visual Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping – SLAM) is developed. Fig.6. Capturing stereo-images (left), estimating scenery depth based on stereo-disparity (middle) and tracking of salient features (right) are major steps in visual SLAM. Increasing ADCP measurement resolution ADCP-derived 3D velocities are based on measurements along all four ADCP beams. This leads to a decreasing spatial resolution with increasing measurement depth. Approaches to increase the resolution are currently tested. Fig.7. Spatial resolution of 3D velocities measured with a RioGrande 1200kHz ADCP 1 Cranfield University, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Cranfield, UK, Durham University, School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham, UK 3 Environment Agency, Wallingford and Feering, UK © Cranfield University 2014
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