Presentation on theme: "Spending the Pupil Premium: Strategies to Improve Learning"— Presentation transcript:
1Spending the Pupil Premium: Strategies to Improve Learning Steve HigginsSchool of Education, Durham UniversitySignposts for Success – Effective Intervention for Children Looked After17th October 2012Hertfordshire Development Centre, Stevenage
2Sutton Trust Report on Spending the Pupil Premium: Toolkit of Strategies to Improve Learning Why we wrote itBest ‘buys’Worst ‘buys’LearningHow might we use it?
3The pupil premium Aims: to reduce the attainment gap between the highest and lowest achieving pupils nationallyto increase social mobilityto enable more pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds to get to the top Universitiesto provide additional resource to schools to do thisto support looked after children£600 in for fsm1 pupils; rising to £900 in and £1200 in ?1 any child registered for fsm in the last six years and all looked after children
4Resources and learning Above a minimum threshold – no simple linkMore money ≠ more learningThere is an association but weak and complexConclusion: spending more won’t guarantee benefit- no simple solution
5The questionHow should a school spend any extra ‘discretionary’ budget to achieve maximum benefits in learning?
6The Bananarama Principle It ain’t what you do it’s the way that you do it…So how do you spend £600/pupil to “get results”?Or, what does the evidence say is a good investment or a poor investment for learning?It ain’t what you spend but the way that you spend it…Resources and learning
7Smaller classes?Complex evidence- no clear link with class size and achievementExperimental trials suggestClasses need to be less than about 17And teachers need to change the way they teachBut teaching assistants not as effectiveThe maths:£600 x 20 pupils x 3 classes = £27,00050%+ on fsm = 1 extra teacher per 3 classesClass size reduction from 30 to 23 – not enough
8One-to-one tuition Highly effective The maths… I hour/ day over at least 6 weeksSupport for class teacher to re-integrateThe maths…6 weeks x 5 days x 1 hour = 30 hours4 days teacher time (more effective with an experienced teacher)Approx £800May work if you use pairs and target pupils only need it once a year – expensive but effective
9What we tried to doSummarise the evidence from meta-analysis about the impact of different strategies on learning (attainment).As found in research studiesThese are averagesApply quality criteria to evaluations: rigorous designs onlyEstimate the size of the effectStandardised Mean Difference = ‘Months of gain’Estimate the costs of adoptingInformation not always available
15Overview of value for money PromisingMay be worth it10FeedbackMeta-cognitionPeer tutoringEY intervention1-1 tutoringHomeworkEffect Size (months gain)Summer schoolsICTPhonicsSmaller classesParental involvementIndividualised learningSportsAfter schoolNot worth itLearning stylesArtsPerformance payTeaching assistantsAbility grouping£0£1000Cost per pupil
16Issues and limitations Based on meta-analysis – averages of averagesConversion to ‘months progress’ is a rough estimateIntervention research is compared with ‘normal’ practice which is variedNot ‘what works’ but what has worked – ‘good bets’ to support professional evaluation and enquiry
17Key messagesSome things that are popular or widely thought to be effective are probably not worth doingAbility grouping (setting); After-school clubs; Teaching assistants; Smaller classes; Performance paySome things look ‘promising’Effective feedback; Meta-cognition and self regulation strategies; Peer tutoring; Homework (for secondary pupils)
18Feedback“… we have each been asked several times by teachers, ‘What makes for good feedback?’—a question to which, at first, we had no good answer. Over the course of two or three years, we have evolved a simple answer—good feedback causes thinking.”(Black & Wiliam, 2003)Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2003). 'In praise of educational research': Formative assessment. British Educational Research Journal, 29(5),
19Meta-cognition and self regulation strategies Teaching approaches which make learners’ thinking about learning more explicit in the classroom.E.g. teaching pupils strategies to plan, to monitor and to evaluate their own learning.It is usually more effective in small groups so learners can support each other and make their thinking explicit through discussion.Self-regulation refers to managing one’s own motivation towards learning AND managing one’s thinking and reasoning (cognitive aspects).
20Peer tutoringLearners work in pairs or small groups to provide each other with explicit teaching support. The learners take on responsibility for aspects of teaching and for evaluating the success of their peers.Cross-Age Tutoring an older learner usually takes the tutoring role and is paired with a younger tutee or tutees.Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) is a structured approach for mathematics and reading requiring set periods of time for implementation of about minutes 2 or 3 times a week.Reciprocal Peer Tutoring: learners alternate between the role of tutor and tutee.
21Effective strategies Effective feedback (needs trust) Build learning relationshipsSupport social interaction and supportOne-to-one tuition – with an experienced teacherSmall group collaborative learning
22Have we solved the problem of how to improve attainment? Is that it?Have we solved the problem of how to improve attainment?
23The challenges (1): implementation These strategies have been shown to be cost-effective in research studiesBut when we have tried to implement evidence-based strategies we have not seen system-wide improvement (e.g. AfL)We don’t know how to get schools/teachers who are not currently doing them to do so in ways that areTrue to the key principlesFeasible in real classrooms – with all their constraintsScalable and replicableSustainable
24The challenges (2) : making it work for you This is what has worked (on average)Where is there leverage for improvement in your work?Will it build capacity?For learners?For teachers?How will this apply to children looked after?
25Research example: Letterbox club Once‐monthly personalised parcels posted to children in their foster homesReading materials, story CDs, stationery and mathematics games7‐ 11 years, May to OctoberAims to improve attainment levels in reading and number skillsBooktrust, Leicester Uni, DfEWinter K., Connolly P., Bell, I. and Ferguson, J. (2011) An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Letterbox Club in Improving Educational Outcomes among Children Aged 7‐11 Years in Foster Care in Northern Ireland, Belfast: Centre for Effective Education, Queen’s University Belfast.
26How will the Toolkit develop? Next update planned for January – a more dynamic resource with evidence of effective practice based on rigorous evaluationIt will grow as the evidence base does; EEF projects will help fill-in the gaps and expand the scopeThe EEF will also create practical examples of the interventions backed up by evidence – e.g. training, programmes and approaches that schools can useToolkit will become broader (e.g. more topics) and deeper (e.g. more detail within topics).
27LinksThe full report can be found on the EEF’s website: With information about the background to the analysis: The toolkit is recommended by the Department for Education: Official information about the Pupil Premium and LA allocations is available at: Ofsted’s report is available at:
28High Impact Low cost High cost Low Impact Questions: Where do different strategies lie? (Remember, you are thinking about averages not maximums)Why do the strategies lie there? (“I remember reading that teaching assistants don’t make a difference” is not a good answer!)How could we move strategies north-west? (This is really the key question – teachers aren’t passive recipients of research – they should think about how they can ensure that within a distribution of impacts, they are in the most positive half, and they should be thinking about how to make effective strategies more cost effective e.g. 2-1 tuition)Low Impact
29Key points What will you do? BUT what will you stop doing? How will you connect this to learning? How will you connect this to attainment?BUT what will you stop doing?
30For every complex problem there is a solution that is simple, neat… and WRONG!H.L. Mencken