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Optimising Welfare BHS Welfare Officers Meeting, Durham 2012

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1 Optimising Welfare BHS Welfare Officers Meeting, Durham 2012
Equine Euthanasia Optimising Welfare BHS Welfare Officers Meeting, Durham 2012

2 Why euthanasia? Euthanasia basically means ‘good death’
Old or diseased animals should be given the benefit of a good death to avoid suffering, where appropriate It is not seen as acceptable in this country to allow animals to essentially die of starvation due to ‘old age’ and veterinary attention or euthanasia is required Owners must take responsibility for preventing suffering by euthanasia, even if they find it difficult

3 Why euthanasia? In times of recession
In some cases the decision to euthanase is clear cut In other cases there may be a difficult decision to make, particularly with an older, retired horse because: It may be possible to avoid suffering in some older horses for example by treating dental problems, ensuring worming is done correctly and supplementing feed or using total hay replacer ensuring adequate weather protection – shelter / rugs. However these measures may be considerably more expensive than the management which may have been sufficient when the horse was younger.

4 Attitudes to Euthanasia
Some people feel guilty when they cannot afford to provide an elderly horse with expensive management Others will have no qualms about having a horse euthanased, rather than keep a retired horse Some people are greatly affected by other people’s opinions (and we all know horsey people have plenty of those) and others are not Vets dealing regularly with horses are quite used to attitudes varying from the commercial, to the beloved pet which the client wants to keep alive to the point where they have to be advised that welfare is becoming an issue. Vets are particularly used to dealing with euthanasia on a regular basis and need to be aware we may have different attitudes to those of the general public

5 Euthanasia Decisions If ? Why? When? Where? By what method?
These decisions are interlinked and therefore must be considered briefly when considering options for method of euthanasia

6 If? – The Vet’s Role It may surprise you how few decisions to euthanase , vets are involved in. The majority of cases where we are asked for our advice are whether an animal requires immediate or urgent euthanasia for catastrophic illness or pain such as (surgical) colic Fractured leg and other major orthopaedic injuries Painful conditions where treatment is unsuccessful, prolonged or very expensive such as some cases of severe laminitis Inability to rise

7 If? – The Vet’s Role The number of young and middle aged horses that require euthanasia due to medical (as opposed to surgical) conditions is not that great and therefore it is difficult to make generalisations about how decisions are made The older horse In many cases of older horses we will either have been called in earlier – when an elderly horse started to lose significant weight - or not at all Older horses losing weight may commonly have dental problems, liver or other organ dysfunction, cushings disease or combinations of the above and some cases may improve with treatment and dietary change and others may not Even in these cases, once diagnosis and treatment have been attempted, often the owner will make a decision on euthanasia themselves when the horse deteriorates

8 If? – The Vets Role Complications caused by Insurance –in brief:
Many horses are insured for death - including euthanasia on humane grounds – there is a legal definition of this and a pay-out on the value of the horse will only be applied if the horse had to be immediately destroyed and no other treatment options were possible This means that (commonly) colic surgery or other (possibly expensive) treatments must be provided rather than euthanasia even if the horse is not insured for vets fees, if a pay-out is to be received. A post mortem is usually required and the owner is liable for the cost of this

9 Why? – implications for methods
In emergency situations where horses have to be euthanased immediately on welfare grounds, it is usually necessary to call a vet who must provide emergency cover 24/7. In this situation carcass disposal options may be reduced, for example if the horse must be put to sleep by injection, or in a field. Horses being euthanased because they are diseased or very thin, will often not be suitable for slaughter for human consumption

10 Where? Usually least distressing option for most horses
At home Transport Usually least distressing option for most horses Site needs to be accessible for carcass to be picked up. Need to contact disposal company for details Incurs cost for carcass pick-up (unless hunt kennels will pick-up for free) To slaughterhouse, hunt kennels, knackers yard (or vet premises) Horse must be fit for transport (+/- consumption) Becoming more common as cheaper option

11 When? Possibly most important to consider in old weak horses that may be experiencing difficulty rising – if possible avoid leaving until horse is stuck down in field as logistics of carcass removal can be more complicated, more expensive and distressing In general owners with old horses like ‘give them the summer’ on grass and aim to make a decision on euthanasia before winter sets in – again best not to leave too late Plan for disposal in conjunction with making appointment with vet, if vet is to euthanase horse. Vets usually try to be flexible and give specific time appointments for euthanasia

12 Planning for Euthanasia
Owners or their agents will need to investigate local options for carcass disposal The horse’s temperament and whether it is used to being handled may need to be considered – if in doubt seek veterinary advice

13 Euthanasia Methods By injection Vet only Using a free bullet gun
Captive bolt At a slaughterhouse only

14 Injectable euthanasia
Somulose The most commonly used A barbiturate anaesthetic – secobarbital And a local anaesthetic – cinchocaine Secobarbital anaesthetises the horse so that it is unconscious, then cinchocaine stops the heart - blocks conduction of signals in muscle and nerve cells. The two drugs are given in combination (come mixed, in the same bottle)

15 Other drugs for injectable euthanasia
Barbiturates alone - Pentobarbitone Commonly used before somulose licensed Large volumes required

16 Injectable euthanasia method
The jugular vein is used in almost all cases Most veterinary surgeons insert a catheter (canula) in most cases The horses are usually sedated slightly and a small quantity of local anaesthetic is inserted under the skin over the jugular before the catheter is inserted Then the euthanasia agent is injected through the catheter

17 Why use a catheter? A catheter is used to try to ensure that the whole dose of the drug is delivered into the vein rather than partially under the skin, and helps ensure it can be delivered quickly enough, without having to check that a needle is still in the vein A catheter helps ensure that should more drug be required after the horse has gone down, that access to the vein is readily available, even if the horse is not in an ideal position for venepuncture

18 Why use sedation? Sedation is used to help in catheter insertion but also produces a more aesthetic euthanasia by keeping the horse calm and allowing the anaesthetic drugs to work correctly, without excitation reactions

19 Injectable euthanasia - logistics
Injectable euthanasia preparation takes perhaps 5-10 minutes to sedate horse and insert a catheter After injection is done the process (with somulose) takes seconds to collapse and 2-3 minutes till the corneal (eye) reflex is gone. During this time the vet would listen to the heart to check that has stopped or is slowing in a reasonable time

20 Somulose - Aesthetics Usually with somulose there is minimal muscle tremor although some horses will gasp - usually once or twice only Occasionally there can be delayed death with normal collapse – in this case a further dose delivered quickly should stop the heart Therefore if the heart continues to beat for a period after collapse I will deliver a further dose (better safe than sorry) The horse is anaesthetised and still at this stage, and therefore the owner can be reassured that there is no problem. In my experience owners are usually not distressed as there is no outward sign of life and a catheter allows ease of delivery of further drug without fuss.

21 Injectable euthanasia - Aesthetics
In conclusion – euthanasia by injection is often the most aesthetic method It can be used safely in confined areas such as stables Most vets will use somulose - the technique is simple, does not involve multiple syringes and is relatively reliable for safe and aesthetic collapse Although there is no perfect method of euthanasia problems with somulose are relatively rare and are usually not distressing as the horse is anaesthetised and still

22 Cost Implications Injectable euthanasia tends to be relatively expensive Veterinary surgeon only (charge for visit and euthanasia) Somulose and sedative drugs are not cheap (at least £60 added) Horses euthanased by injection cannot be fed to hunt hounds due to high toxicity of drugs

23 Euthanasia by firearm A free bullet gun should be used in horses as captive bolt pistols are not powerful enough to be reliable The horse should fall immediately to the ground and are often still but in some cases there will be vigorous involuntary muscle movements Many veterinary practices have vets with firearms licenses although not all

24 Problems of euthanasia by firearm
There is a risk of ricochet injury to humans if the correct angle and position of entry are not achieved therefore an enclosed space can be dangerous In rare cases pithing is required if the brain and brainstem are not destroyed by the bullet – this is not very aesthetic (to say the least) In almost all cases there is copious haemorrhage which may not be acceptable to the owner In head-shy horses sedation (and therefore a veterinary surgeon) may still be required According to UK police guidance a clear distance of 2km in direction of shot is required for safety, with no dwellings vehicles or animals. However this is not often adhered to and a barn of straw or hill behind may be substituted.

25 Advantages of euthanasia by firearm
Reduced cost compared to injectable techniques The carcass can be fed to dogs and in this case euthanasia disposal may not be charged for if a local hunt is available- not always easy to find a hunt that disposes of horses these days Cost of euthanasia is often included in cost of disposal where fallen stock disposal companies euthanase and pick up carcass

26 Euthanasia of difficult horses
Very needle-shy horses which cannot be sedated intravenously present a challenge for injectable euthanasia and may require euthanasia with a firearm Intramuscular and oral sedation techniques prior to injectable euthanasia are not usually appropriate as they will affect the efficacy of euthanasia agents – more complex techniques utilising anaesthesia may be possible in extremis but would be expensive. Intramuscular sedation prior to shooting is an option in difficult situations Unhandleable horses requiring urgent destruction from a distance, when they are still mobile (running away) are highly unlikely, but may require the services of a professional marksman – vanishingly rare situation outwith feral populations

27 Options for carcass disposal
Fallen Stock Disposal companies (the knacker man) The Local Hunt – carcass fed to hounds Pet Crematorium Bury carcass at home Live transport for slaughter for human consumption – only if passported and have not had phenylbutazone and some other drugs

28 Fallen stock disposal These companies usually employ slaughtermen who are able to shoot horses and will remove the carcass at the same time However – some slaughtermen have more experience with handling and shooting horses and with handling horse owners than others, and this method may not be suitable for all situations These companies will also pick up horses euthanased by a vet

29 Fallen stock disposal Owner pays for carcass to be removed and it is usually incinerated Local companies differ as to how aesthetically this is done Most companies pick up on large wagons which are likely to contain other carcasses and will not be able to enter fields – hard standing is required for the lorry and the carcass is winched onto it via a wire secured around the neck Some companies in some local areas have a specialist driver/vehicle which is smaller and may be able to enter fields if ground conditions are good enough. A winch and wire around the neck are still used

30 Local Hunt Kennels More difficult than it was historically to find hunt kennels that will dispose of carcasses Carcasses fed to dogs - so must be shot and any medications recently received by the horse should be discussed with kennelsman before booking euthanasia Often able to pick up carcass from home but may accept horses being transported to their premises for euthanasia

31 Pet Crematorium Horses are incinerated individually
Most expensive option In most cases euthanasia by a vet will be necessary as these companies don’t usually have staff which shoot horses Can be more acceptable carcass pick-up for client as individual small vehicle usually used (no dead animals already on vehicle) and can be more accommodating in picking up animals from fields and enclosed spaces Different carcass options available Individual cremation with ashes back Casket options

32 Burying carcasses at home
Allowed in some local authority areas for pet horses Permission is required from the local authority Must not be near a watercourse – advice from local authority Owners must be aware that even small ponies will require mechanised digging equipment!!! Injectable euthanasia or firearm may be used for animals to be buried

33 Slaughter for human consumption
These animals must be transported alive for slaughter at a slaughterhouse licensed to kill horses for human consumption Because horse meat is not traditionally eaten in the UK there are currently only 3 slaughterhouses of this type in the UK – two in the West of England and one in the North It is not necessarily easy for the individual horse owner to utilise this as a method of disposal and in general a middleman who buys horses for slaughter is usually involved

34 Slaughter and Passports
Horses to be slaughtered for human consumption must have been passported (including a microchip for all new passports) within the first 6 months of life or before December 31st in the year of birth, whichever is later This is to try to ensure that the animal will not have received any drugs which cannot enter the food chain before being passported Section IX part II must not be signed – Signing this section precludes the horse from human consumption and means that medicines do not need to be recorded Horses that have received phenylbutazone (bute) at any time cannot go into the human food chain as it can cause blood cell abnormalities in sensitive people which can be fatal. There is therefore no safe minimum concentration of bute in meat

35 Attitudes to slaughter for human consumption
This option is often not considered by pet owners for obvious reasons but commercial and other horse owners may consider that this is a humane option for unwanted horses. This may be an alternative to trying to salvage some value from the horse by selling it to a dealer. Some dealers may or may not be reputable, and could sell an animal which is not able to perform the work that is required of it, to an owner who is not prepared to deal with such an animal. Is it better to be transported for slaughter than be passed from pillar to post and possibly mistreated or neglected if a horse’s wellness or temperament preclude work? Obviously this decision needs to take into account the horse’s suitability for transport on temperament and health grounds and the distance and method of transport.

36 Paying for Euthanasia and Disposal
In most cases disposal companies and crematoria will expect payment in advance by card for private individual horse owners or cash or cheque at the time Slaughter for human consumption will provide the owner with recompense according to the meat price as long as the carcass is accepted at meat hygiene inspection

37 Further sources of information and advice
Humane Slaughter Association hand-out has useful contacts at the back Phone advice is free from your vet…


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