Presentation on theme: "SELF-RULE for CANADA, AUSTRALIA, AND NEW ZEALAND Bell work #3 It states that they bought this century old house for there parents which is a national landmark."— Presentation transcript:
SELF-RULE for CANADA, AUSTRALIA, AND NEW ZEALAND Bell work #3 It states that they bought this century old house for there parents which is a national landmark
Canada Indigenous- original inhabitants of these regions were relatively few in number, and white settlers quickly subdued and replace them. These two English speaking colonies, as well as Canada, won independence faster and with greater ease than England’s territories in Africa or Asia.
The Canadian Pattern The two Canada's- Canada Act in 1791 created two provinces: English speaking Upper Canada and French Speaking Lower Canada. Each had its own laws, legislature. 1800s- The people of Upper Canada resented the power held by a small British elite. In Lower Canada, too, people felt that British officials ignored their needs. 1837, discontent flared into rebellion in both Upper and Lower Canada.
The Durham Report British learned a lesson from the American Revolution, so they sent a able politician, lord Durham, to study the causes of the unrest. Durham Report called for the two Canada's to be reunited and given control over their own affairs. 1840, Parliament passed the Act of Union it gave Canada and elected legislature to determine domestic policies. Britain kept control of foreign policy and trade.
Dominion of Canada John Macdonald and George Etienne Cartier, urged confederation, or unification, of all Canada’s provinces. Like many Canadians, MacDonald and Cartier feared that the U.S. might try to dominate Canada. A strong union would strengthen Canada against American ambitions. 1867, the British North America Act was passed, creating the Dominion of Canada. It united four provinces in self governing nation.
Expansion John Macdonald, Canada’s first prime minister, encouraged expansion across the continent. 1885, the Canadian Pacific Railway opened, Linking eastern and western Canada As in the U.S., westward expansion destroyed the way of life of Native Americans in Canada. Most were forced to sign treaties giving up their lands. Some resisted, Louis Riel led a revolt of the Metis, people of mixed Native American and European descent. Government troops put down the uprising and executed Riel. As in the U.S., westward expansion destroyed the way of life of Native Americans in Canada. Most were forced to sign treaties giving up their lands. Some resisted, Louis Riel led a revolt of the Metis, people of mixed Native American and European descent. Government troops put down the uprising and executed Riel.
Europeans in Australia The Dutch in the 1600s were the first Europeans to reach Australia. 1770, Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Britain. The First Settlers- They had reached Australia 50,000 years ago, probably form Southeast Asia. Aborigines were groups of small hunting and food gathering bands, much as their Stone Age ancestors.
Penal Colony Prisons in London and other cities were jammed with poor people arrested for crimes such as stealing food or goods to pawn. To fulfill the need for prisons, Britain made Australia into a penal colony, a place to send people convicted of crimes. The first ships, carrying about 700 convicts arrived in Botany Bay, Australia, in 1788. The men Under the brutal discipline of soldiers, worked to clear land for the settlement.
The Outback 1851, gold was found in eastern Australia. Gold hunters stayed on to become ranchers and farmer. They pushed into the rugged interior known as the Outback. There too, the y displaced the Aborigines and carved out huge sheep ranches and wheat farms. 1800s Australia had won a place in a growing world economy.
Achieving Self-Government 1901, Britain helped the colonies unite into the independent commonwealth of Australia. The new country kept its ties to Britain by recognizing the British monarch as its head of state. This set up a federal system that limited the power of the central government. Australia quickly granted women the right to vote. It also was the first nation to introduce the secret ballot.
New Zealand Far to the southeast of Australia lies New Zealand. Maori struggles- Unlike Australia, where the Aborigines were spread thinly across a large continent, the Maoris were concentrated in a smaller area. Maoris were settled farmers. They were also a warlike people, determined to defend their land. 1840, Britain annexed New Zealand. The move was designed in part to keep out other imperialist powers. 1870, resistance crumbled. The Maori population had fallen drastically, form 250,000 to less than 50,000 Only in recent years has the Maori population started to grow once more.
Self Government White New Zealanders sought self-rule. In 1907 they won independence, with their own parliament, prime minister, and elected legislature. They, too, preserved close ties to the British empire. 1893, it became the first nation to give suffrage to women.