2Historical Context-Europe-1000-1100 Orthodox Christianity (Byzantine) converts a largely pagan Russia (remember: Constantinople modern day Istanbul)Further divided long standing rivalry between Roman (ie Roman Catholic- centered in Rome), and Orthodox (Byzantine)The Pope also increases his authority over central and eastern EuropeThey eventually split in Orthodoxy in the decline and has an exposed frontier with Islam- Roman Catholicism would expand and growGrowth of the cult of the saints and the habit of pilgrimage that was growing around their relicsThe church grew more wealthy, and new buildings appeared along pilgrimage roads
3We can see the similarities of the Byzantine, Greek Orthodox and Russian church architecture and how they differ from the castle and tower churches of Medieval Europe
4Romanesque Architecture “Romanesque” is the first international style since the Roman EmpireRomanesque architecture is massive, low, and solid-lookingCompetition among cities for the largest churches, which continues in the Gothic period via a “quest for height.”Religious in theme and designed to evoke wonder and powerful response from the viewer
5Art and architecture were used to demonstrate the churches powerful role as political, religious and cultural leader of the WestMasonry (stone) the preferred medium. Craft of concrete essentially lost in this period.Rejection of wooden structures or structural elements.East end of church the focus for liturgical services. West end for the entrance to church.Church portals as “billboards” for scripture or elements of faith.
6windows were small so not to weaken walls Pilgrimage churchCruciform plans. Nave and transept at right angles to one another. Church as a metaphor for heaven.Crossings (where the nave and transept crossed) where often topped with towers, or domes, or laternsAmbulatories , or walkways, were built around the apse to allow for large processions needed to view the relicsColumns separate the nave from the side aisles-create strong feeling of rhythmInterior space could not get great height because of problems of weight and thrustwindows were small so not to weaken wallsStè Sernim Toulouse France
7Towers on side of entrance Abbey Church Jumieges FranceDurham CathedralWorms Cathedral
8Roofs replace by masonry barrel vaults Groin vaults were often used to stabilize navesRibbed groin vaults of Durham Cathedral, England began 1093
9Rounded arches were used throughout including over windows and niches that contained sculpture
10These heavy structures spanned large naves and created a lot of tremendous outward pressure, requiring massive exterior buttresses and thick walls for support.Buttresses: a massive support built against a wall to receive the lateral thrust (pressure) exerted by the vault, roof or arch.
11Pisa and its Leaning Tower Another important feature of Romanesque architecture was the use of a separate bell tower, or campanile, that was built beside the main church.Made up of a cathedral, the baptistery, and the campanile ( or bell tower-leaning tower)White marble with horizontal band of green marbleTower will eventually fall over as it tilts more each yearCathedral- latin cross plan- apse at each end of the transept and a pointed dome over the center crossingFaçade tiers of superimposed arches
13CASTLES Found in Germany, France, England, Italy and Spain Marksburg Castle (Germany) typical for 12th centuryStands on a cliff 495 ft above the Rhine riverMain tower reaches 130 ft more into the airResembles churches
14ROMANESQUE SCULPTURE: Associated with churchLarge in scale, attached to architecturemostly on capitals of columns, portals of doors, or nichesExpressive and placed to evoke an emotional response from the viewer
15tympanum-arched area above the doorway lintel and the arch- used for bas relief sculpture Mission of the Apostles, Sainte-Madeline in Vezelay-Christ sending his disciples to teach out into the worldAppropriate for many Crusades left from hereRays of holy spirit pouring down on the apostles (they all have their copies of the GospelsLintel had grotesque figures the heathen (infidels) dog-headed, pig like, dwarf, also the blind and lame all awaiting conversion for salvationAlso contains zodiac signs
17The Bayeux Tapestry is preserved and displayed in Bayeux, in Normandy, France. Nothing is known for certain about the tapestry’s origins.Some historians argue that it was embroidered in Kent, England.It is a very long and narrow hanging on which are embroidered figures and inscriptions comprising a representation of the conquest of England".The Bayeux Tapestry was probably commissioned in the 1070sIt is over 70 metres long and although it is called a tapestry it is in fact an embroidery, stitched not woven in woollen yarns on linen..
18Events Technology Religion Architecture Art 1000-1100 Chart Western EuropeNear EastIndiaFar EastEventsNorman expansionFirst CrusadeRapid increase of populationLands recovered by the Byzantines 1025Then defeated 1071 by SeljuksCapture of Jerusalem by knights of the first crusadeNW India invaded by Mahmud of Ghnzni- zealous MuslimPunjab annexed to to his central empireGreat prosperity under Norther Sung DynastyLarge increase in populationRice introducedTechnologyGreek medicineAstrolabeWater power- millsMore refined astronomical instrumentsImproved navigational tablesGunpowder first used in warfarePrinting with movable typeFirst compassAstronomical instruments perfectedWater driven clockConfucian decline of Buddhism among governing classesReligionSpiritual power of Pope extendedPilgrimage routesestablishedSplit between Roman and Byzantine churchesRevitalization of Islam brought about by the emergence of the SeljuksDecline of the tolerant Fatimid dynasty of EgyptSouth- Hindu cult of ShivaNW- Islam establishedArchitectureRomanesque churches:Westminster AbbeyPisa CathedralTower of Victory, AfghanistanMosque of al- Juyushi, EgyptTemple of ShivaMount Abu templesColour of the iron Pagoda, ChinaTèien-ning temple PekingArtBayeux TapestryBronze Doors St MichalesConstantinople famed for silks and ivoriesSeljuk brickworkErotic sculptures of KhajurahoJain sculptural decorationsPeriod of unsurpassed excellence in Chinese ceramics and paintingRealism in Sung painting