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Romanesque 1000 -1200 Eastern Europe. Historical Context-Europe-1000-1100 Orthodox Christianity (Byzantine) converts a largely pagan Russia (remember:

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Presentation on theme: "Romanesque 1000 -1200 Eastern Europe. Historical Context-Europe-1000-1100 Orthodox Christianity (Byzantine) converts a largely pagan Russia (remember:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Romanesque Eastern Europe

2 Historical Context-Europe Orthodox Christianity (Byzantine) converts a largely pagan Russia (remember: Constantinople modern day Istanbul) Orthodox Christianity (Byzantine) converts a largely pagan Russia (remember: Constantinople modern day Istanbul) Further divided long standing rivalry between Roman (ie Roman Catholic- centered in Rome), and Orthodox (Byzantine) Further divided long standing rivalry between Roman (ie Roman Catholic- centered in Rome), and Orthodox (Byzantine) The Pope also increases his authority over central and eastern Europe The Pope also increases his authority over central and eastern Europe They eventually split in Orthodoxy in the decline and has an exposed frontier with Islam They eventually split in Orthodoxy in the decline and has an exposed frontier with Islam - Roman Catholicism would expand and grow - Roman Catholicism would expand and grow Growth of the cult of the saints and the habit of pilgrimage that was growing around their relics Growth of the cult of the saints and the habit of pilgrimage that was growing around their relics The church grew more wealthy, and new buildings appeared along pilgrimage roads The church grew more wealthy, and new buildings appeared along pilgrimage roads

3 We can see the similarities of the Byzantine, Greek Orthodox and Russian church architecture and how they differ from the castle and tower churches of Medieval Europe We can see the similarities of the Byzantine, Greek Orthodox and Russian church architecture and how they differ from the castle and tower churches of Medieval Europe

4 Romanesque Architecture “Romanesque” is the first international style since the Roman Empire “Romanesque” is the first international style since the Roman Empire Romanesque architecture is massive, low, and solid- looking Romanesque architecture is massive, low, and solid- looking Competition among cities for the largest churches, which continues in the Gothic period via a “quest for height.” Competition among cities for the largest churches, which continues in the Gothic period via a “quest for height.” Religious in theme and designed to evoke wonder and powerful response from the viewer Religious in theme and designed to evoke wonder and powerful response from the viewer

5 Art and architecture were used to demonstrate the churches powerful role as political, religious and cultural leader of the West Art and architecture were used to demonstrate the churches powerful role as political, religious and cultural leader of the West Masonry (stone) the preferred medium. Craft of concrete essentially lost in this period. Masonry (stone) the preferred medium. Craft of concrete essentially lost in this period. Rejection of wooden structures or structural elements. Rejection of wooden structures or structural elements. East end of church the focus for liturgical services. West end for the entrance to church. East end of church the focus for liturgical services. West end for the entrance to church. Church portals as “billboards” for scripture or elements of faith. Church portals as “billboards” for scripture or elements of faith.

6 Cruciform plans. Nave and transept at right angles to one another. Church as a metaphor for heaven. Crossings (where the nave and transept crossed) where often topped with towers, or domes, or laterns Ambulatories, or walkways, were built around the apse to allow for large processions needed to view the relics Columns separate the nave from the side aisles-create strong feeling of rhythm Interior space could not get great height because of problems of weight and thrust windows were small so not to weaken walls Stè Sernim Toulouse France Pilgrimage church

7 Towers on side of entrance Worms Cathedral Durham Cathedral Abbey Church Jumieges France

8 Roofs replace by masonry barrel vaults Roofs replace by masonry barrel vaults Groin vaults were often used to stabilize naves Groin vaults were often used to stabilize naves Ribbed groin vaults of Durham Cathedral, England began 1093

9 Rounded arches were used throughout including over windows and niches that contained sculpture Rounded arches were used throughout including over windows and niches that contained sculpture

10 These heavy structures spanned large naves and created a lot of tremendous outward pressure, requiring massive exterior buttresses and thick walls for support. These heavy structures spanned large naves and created a lot of tremendous outward pressure, requiring massive exterior buttresses and thick walls for support. Buttresses: a massive support built against a wall to receive the lateral thrust (pressure) exerted by the vault, roof or arch. Buttresses: a massive support built against a wall to receive the lateral thrust (pressure) exerted by the vault, roof or arch.

11 Pisa and its Leaning Tower Another important feature of Romanesque architecture was the use of a separate bell tower, or campanile, that was built beside the main church. Made up of a cathedral, the baptistery, and the campanile ( or bell tower-leaning tower) White marble with horizontal band of green marble Tower will eventually fall over as it tilts more each year Cathedral- latin cross plan- apse at each end of the transept and a pointed dome over the center crossing Façade tiers of superimposed arches

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13 CASTLES Found in Germany, France, England, Italy and Spain Found in Germany, France, England, Italy and Spain Marksburg Castle (Germany) typical for 12th century Marksburg Castle (Germany) typical for 12th century Stands on a cliff 495 ft above the Rhine river Stands on a cliff 495 ft above the Rhine river Main tower reaches 130 ft more into the air Main tower reaches 130 ft more into the air Resembles churches Resembles churches

14 ROMANESQUE SCULPTURE: Associated with church Large in scale, attached to architecture Large in scale, attached to architecture mostly on capitals of columns, portals of doors, or niches mostly on capitals of columns, portals of doors, or niches Expressive and placed to evoke an emotional response from the viewer Expressive and placed to evoke an emotional response from the viewer

15 tympanum-arched area above the doorway lintel and the arch- used for bas relief sculpture Mission of the Apostles, Sainte-Madeline in Vezelay- Christ sending his disciples to teach out into the world Appropriate for many Crusades left from here Rays of holy spirit pouring down on the apostles (they all have their copies of the Gospels Lintel had grotesque figures the heathen (infidels) dog-headed, pig like, dwarf, also the blind and lame all awaiting conversion for salvation Also contains zodiac signs

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17 The Bayeux Tapestry is preserved and displayed in Bayeux, in Normandy, France. Nothing is known for certain about the tapestry’s origins. The Bayeux Tapestry is preserved and displayed in Bayeux, in Normandy, France. Nothing is known for certain about the tapestry’s origins. Some historians argue that it was embroidered in Kent, England. Some historians argue that it was embroidered in Kent, England. It is a very long and narrow hanging on which are embroidered figures and inscriptions comprising a representation of the conquest of England". It is a very long and narrow hanging on which are embroidered figures and inscriptions comprising a representation of the conquest of England". The Bayeux Tapestry was probably commissioned in the 1070s The Bayeux Tapestry was probably commissioned in the 1070s It is over 70 metres long and although it is called a tapestry it is in fact an embroidery, stitched not woven in woollen yarns on linen.. It is over 70 metres long and although it is called a tapestry it is in fact an embroidery, stitched not woven in woollen yarns on linen..

18 Chart Western Europe Near East India Far East Events Norman expansion First Crusade Rapid increase of population Lands recovered by the Byzantines 1025 Then defeated 1071 by Seljuks Capture of Jerusalem by knights of the first crusade NW India invaded by Mahmud of Ghnzni- zealous Muslim Punjab annexed to to his central empire Great prosperity under Norther Sung Dynasty Large increase in population Rice introduced Technology Greek medicine Astrolabe Water power- mills More refined astronomical instruments Improved navigational tables Gunpowder first used in warfare Printing with movable type First compass Astronomical instruments perfected Water driven clock Confucian decline of Buddhism among governing classes Religion Spiritual power of Pope extended Pilgrimage routes established Split between Roman and Byzantine churches Revitalization of Islam brought about by the emergence of the Seljuks Decline of the tolerant Fatimid dynasty of Egypt South- Hindu cult of Shiva NW- Islam established Architecture Romanesque churches: Westminster Abbey Pisa Cathedral Tower of Victory, Afghanistan Mosque of al- Juyushi, Egypt Temple of Shiva Mount Abu temples Colour of the iron Pagoda, China Tèien-ning temple Peking Art Bayeux Tapestry Bronze Doors St Michales Constantinople famed for silks and ivories Seljuk brickwork Erotic sculptures of Khajuraho Jain sculptural decorations Period of unsurpassed excellence in Chinese ceramics and painting Realism in Sung painting


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