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1 Integrating mesoscale catchment experiments with modelling: the potential for sustainable water resources management by Enda O’Connell 1, Jaime Amezaga.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Integrating mesoscale catchment experiments with modelling: the potential for sustainable water resources management by Enda O’Connell 1, Jaime Amezaga."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Integrating mesoscale catchment experiments with modelling: the potential for sustainable water resources management by Enda O’Connell 1, Jaime Amezaga 1, James Bathurst 1, Chris Kilsby 1, Geoff Parkin 1, Paul Quinn 1, Paul Younger 1, Steve Anderton 2, and Mick Riley 3 1. Water Resource Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU 2. Department of Engineering, University of Durham 3. School of Earth Sciences, University of Birmingham HELP

2 A major UK initiative in catchment research CHASM : Catchment Hydrology And Sustainable Management

3 3 CHASM CHASM is a framework for a long-term programme of catchment research which presently involves UK universities, research institutes, and end-user organizations; it is planned to extend it internationally CHASM will be implemented through a series of research projects to be funded from various sources (UK research councils, EC etc.) The first major project to be funded is NICHE (National Infrastructure for Catchment Hydrology Experiments). Joint Infrastructure Fund (JIF) funding of £4M has been approved for catchment instrumentation

4 4 Key Issues The vast majority of catchment experiments have been conducted at the small scale (<10 km 2 ); only limited aspects of hydrological understanding can be transferred to larger scales (the scale issue) The range and intensity of anthropogenic influences within catchments is increasing and impacts are not fully understood, particularly in relation to ecological diversity and biogeochemical cycling A better understanding is needed of how catchments are likely to behave under future climatic conditions Sustainable management plans for catchments need to be underpinned by good scientific understanding, particularly of the influences of abstractions on the hydrological and ecological regimes of catchments

5 5 Key Elements of CHASM A new focus on mesoscale (~100 km 2 ) catchment research to bridge the CHASM (!!) between the typical scale of past experimental catchment research (~10 km 2 ) and the catchment scales which are the focus of sustainable management issues A major assault on the scaling issue, with new scaling theories to be developed and tested using multiscale experiments a set of n mesoscale nested catchment experiments which (a) sample heterogeneity in rainfall/topography/soils/ vegetation/geology comprehensively, and (b) cover a range of anthropogenic impacts A scientific platform for new developments in hydroecological research An integrated monitoring and modelling approach in which modelling is used from the outset to design the catchment experiments and to steer field campaignss

6 6 CHASM Objectives 1. To understand and model catchment response as a function of landscape heterogeneity and scale 2. To understand the impacts of internal anthropogenic activities on catchment response 3. To understand the impacts of climate change on catchment response 4. To use the understanding gained under 1, 2 and 3 to underpin sustainable catchment management

7 7 Science for Sustainable Management Geology Multiscale Catchment Models of Flow and Transport Catchment Experiments Scaling Theories for Hydrological Flow and Transport Meteorology Physics Ecology and Biogeo- chemistry Applied Maths and Statistics

8 8 Planning for Sustainable Management Point source pollution Multiscale Catchment Models of Flow and Transport Catchment Experiments Management Models Land-use Change Climate Change Non-point source pollution Abstractions Sustainable Management Plans

9 9 NICHE Project Structure NICHE National Infrastructure for Catchment Hydrology Experiments NICHE-LOCAR LOwland CAtchment Research 3 catchments NICHE-CHASM Catchment Hydrology And Sustainable Management 4 catchments Co-ordinator: Prof. P.E. O’Connell University of Newcastle upon Tyne Co-ordinator: Prof. H. Wheater Imperial College

10 10 NICHE-CHASM Partner Organisations Uni. Of Newcastle Uni. Of Aberdeen Uni. Of Dundee Uni. Of Durham Uni. Of Lancaster Uni. Of Leeds Uni. Of Ulster Institute of Hydrology Institute of Freshwater Ecology Prof PE O’Connell (co-ordinator) Dr C Soulsby Prof A Werrity Prof T Burt Prof K Beven Prof M Kirkby Prof DN Wilcock Prof JS Wallace Prof AD Pickering

11 11 NICHE-LOCAR Partner Organisations Imperial College Uni. Of Birmingham Uni. Of Exeter Institute of Hydrology Institute of Freshwater Ecology Prof HS Wheater (co-ordinator) Prof GE Petts Prof DE Walling Prof JS Wallace Prof J Hilton

12 12 NICHE Catchments Feshie Oona Eden Upper Severn Tern Frome Pang/Lambourn

13 13 NICHE-CHASM Catchments Feshie University of Aberdeen University of Dundee 200 km 2 Oona Water University of Ulster 92 km 2 Eden University of Newcastle University of Lancaster University of Durham University of Leeds Inst. of Freshwater Ecology 337 km km 2 10 km Upper Severn Institute of Hydrology 187 km 2

14 14 Key Elements of Generic Experimental Design Landscape classification Adaptive, staged approach to instrumentation of catchments: –permanent instrumentation –staged instrumentation –mobile instrumentation Multi-scale approach with nested structure Understand and resolve heterogeneity (Integrated Monitoring and Modelling) Reclassification of the landscape and repetition of the cycle

15 15 Experimental Design Landscape Classification Mobile Instrumentation (‘Green Machine’) Staged Instrumentation (‘Patches’) Permanent Instrumentation (mesoscale, miniscale and microscale catchments)

16 16 Landscape Classification topography soils geology land use hydrological geomorphological ecological classifications ?

17 17 Mobile Instrumentation Rapid surveys (prior to installation of staged instrumentation, and for landscape classification) Lightweight all-terrain vehicle (‘Green Machine’), with –drilling rig –differential GPS –surface geophysics

18 18 Staged Instrumentation 1 Raingauge 2Nested multi-level piezometers 3Soil moisture probes Tensiometers Gypsum blocks suction lysimeters 4 Interception gauges Sap flow meters

19 19 Permanent Instrumentation River gauging stations with nested structure Observation boreholes and river-aquifer experiments Hydrometeorological stations and raingauges Hillslope instrumentation (runoff troughs, lysimeters) Suspended sediment and water quality monitors Ecological monitors (e.g. fish tracking) Mesoscale (~100 km 2) Miniscale (~10 km 2 ) Microscale (~1 km 2 )

20 20 End-User Participation Catchment Management Committees (CMCs) have been set up to create a partnership of NICHE participants and end-user organizations (e.g. Environmental Agencies, Water Companies, Conservation Bodies, Government Departments etc.) The CMCs will –identify key anthropogenic issues to be investigated –harmonize expenditure on instrumentation to meet both research and operational needs –co-ordinate research projects and monitor their progress

21 21 National Forum for Catchment Hydrological Research Provide wider access to NICHE infrastructure Promote involvement in CHASM initiative Discuss research strategy and priorities Develop thematic funding initiatives First meeting at BHS National Symposium in September 2000 Ecological and geomorphological forums to be convened in subsequent years

22 22 International Context The UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (IHP) has identified Experimental Hydrology as a high priority activity for the 6th phase of IHP ( ) The NICHE catchments may be potential candidates for inclusion in the proposed UNESCO Hydrology, Environment, Life and Policy (HELP) programme It is planned to expand the network of CHASM catchments through international collaboration with scientists interested in participating in the CHASM initiative. Those interested should contact the CHASM co-ordinator, Enda O’Connell

23 23 Sustainable Water Resources Management (SWRM) Need to connect with socio-economic dimensions of SWRM Sustainability is concept through which hydrologists can engage with policy makers: meeting the needs of the current generation without foreclosing on the options available to future generations

24 24 Different Perspectives on Sustainability Physical, ecological, social and economic perspectives: how to reconcile in context of SWRM? Need to achieve a: Multi-criteria analysis: technical solution but difficult to articulate the ways in which policy makers think and act e.g. when water resource systems are under stress or undergoing change Sociotechnical Perspective

25 25 Sociotechnical Perspective Need methods and concepts for sociotechnical research How to deal with the human/social factor? HELP!

26 26 Sociotechnical Perspective Shaping one common reality Planning for Sustainable Management Point source pollution Multiscale Catchment Models of Flow and Transport Catchment Experiments Management Models Land- use Change Climate Change Non-point source pollution Abstractions Sustainable Management Plans

27 27 Problem Structuring Methods (PSMs) Can deal with ill-structured situations involving human actors with multiple perspectives ‘Soft-system’ approaches require human skills and expertise which technical experts find difficulty in relating to May help to arrive at consensus among different actors and stakeholders in different settings as to what SWRM really means, and how it might be achieved in the future


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