Presentation on theme: "Nanomanufacturing: LCA Challenges for Deposition Processes and Coated Products Presentation by Delcie R Durham Mechanical Engineering Nanotechnology and."— Presentation transcript:
Nanomanufacturing: LCA Challenges for Deposition Processes and Coated Products Presentation by Delcie R Durham Mechanical Engineering Nanotechnology and Life Cycle Assessment Workshop, Chicago November 2009 USF
Research advances at macro scale during same time period Industrial Ecology LCA / LCI / PLM tools EBDM Are these ready for advancing to the nanoscale?
Personal path: Coming full circle after 20 years Patience and persistence shape the future like water sculpts the rock. 2002 1990 Tool Life and Tool Wear Research 1994 Hard coatings for machining inserts 1997 PNT, TSE, nm in MPM programs 1999 + EBDM, Green Design 2001+ Biocomplexity MUSES Sustainablity LCA of nanocyrstalline diamond for machine tool inserts Paul Sheng won NAMRI best paper award for environmental impact of dry machining – raised questions Submicron phenomena for mfg, nanotools available Why little activity on environment in manufacturing? EBDM study, broad collaborations, LCA, Product life cycle mgmt. Societal issues recognized and integrated through sustainability Back to nanostructures and phenomena for processes and product now with LCA
Life cycle analysis as a decision- making tool in product realization? How can LCA be incorporated into the design process early enough to affect critical decisions on selecting material, manufacturing process when design criteria are focused on performance and manufacturing criteria are focused on producibility and productivity? Can we create a dynamic LCA that integrates with other design / analysis tools rather than a static “snapshot” tool?
Where are the current roadblocks for a “non NP” example Consider thin film deposition that relies on creating and maintaining a nanostructure in order to achieve phenomenologically enhanced properties Properties of interested include: mechanical resistance to wear, corrosion resistance, thermal / electrical conductivity
Thin film coatings – challenges of producing nanostructured thin films (3 Ps) The primary focus has been on selecting a process and optimizing it for producibility – getting the desired material properties. Then issues of repeatability, improving the yield, scaling up for productivity, provide the next challenges Finally, profitability – where can costs be reduced might lead to consideration of the environmental costs through waste reduction.
Thin film processing as part of LCA Deposition process is usually not stand-alone but requires interrelated surface prep, cleaning, etc. Optimization of process depends upon material, crystallographic orientation, etc. that is desired for the product. Difficult to standardize an LCA given these many variations – example microwave power enhancements, substrate temperatures, target preparation,
Overview: The Flow of Materials Resource Extraction Materials Processing Product Manufacture Product Use Collection & Processing Waste Disposal RecycleRe-useRe-manufacture Air Water Land Air Water Land Air Water Land Air Water Land Air Water Land Air Water Land from Derry Allen, US EPA, presentation June 30, 2003 at the International Society for Industrial Ecology
Introduction of Total Product Lifecycle Management TPLM considers all flows into and out of the product life cycle, and can include consideration of multiple life cycles when component reuse and remanufacture occur.
Focusing on nanomanufacturing Surface Prep Deposition Cleaning, conditionin Functionality driven: Choices: heat treatment, chemical etch, mechanical peening Separate LCA from deposition Processes: Choices: PVD, CVD, Ion Beam, Molecular Beam, Evaporation, with modifications Equipment cleaning Application driven: Choices: Chem Mech Polish Stress Relieving Cleaning Prep for addn’l layers separate LCA from deposition process. Target Mfg
Complications in nmfg Variations in energy, materials and catalysts, based on realizing desired structure, not on minimizing energy, evaluating different catalysts for environmental impact. Product use causes very small wear land compared to whole tool insert, remanfg can require addn’l prep processes. Some tools have 8 – 16 different sub-micron layers deposited on the surface.
Other additional LCA challenges Wear of product in use? There has been little to no investigation regarding wear particle generation for machining. Machining (USE) can include cutting fluids or be done dry – where do particles end up, how can they be collected? Some tools have 8 – 16 different sub-micron layers deposited on the surface - EOL?
Nano + LCA: issues ACCEPTANCE: Must address triple bottom line for mfg. Must be transparent to product designer. Must accommodate “local” optimization. RESEARCH Interdisciplinary research to include societal and economic impacts Modules of LCA for design (beyond EcoInvent) Integrate optimization methods, risk and uncertainty