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1 Romanesque In Italy, France and England. 2 Mont Saint Michel (France)

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Presentation on theme: "1 Romanesque In Italy, France and England. 2 Mont Saint Michel (France)"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Romanesque In Italy, France and England

2 2 Mont Saint Michel (France)

3 3 Outline  Introduction  Part I Definition  Part II Romanesque in Italy  Part III Romanesque in France  Part IV Romanesque in England  Conclusion  References

4 4 Introduction  Following the demise of the Western Roman Empire, the Church became most important promoter of culture  The monasteries built by the Benedictine Order, founded in 529, played an important role  Charles the Great gave the pope some independence from the Byzantine emperor and the pope gave the Frankish ruler a new legitimacy  The monumental stone building was revived under Charles (competition with Byzantium and claim to the legacy of the high Roman culture)

5 5 Cluny III Cluny III was the largest building in Christendom and one of the grandest of the pilgrimage churches

6 6 Part I Definition  The term “Romanesque” first used in the 19 th century. The word Romanesque originally meant "in the Roman manner.“  Use of the Roman round arch, adoption of the major forms of antique Roman vaulting (contained, strong, weighty and somber style)  Most Romanesque churches retained the basic plan of the Early Christian basilica: a long, three-aisled nave intercepted by a transept and terminating in a semicircular apse crowned by a conch, or half-dome  European movement in architecture (10-12 th centuries), especially in Italy, France, England and Germany

7 7 Part II Romanesque in Italy  The campanile, freestanding bell tower, the cathedral of Pisa and the tower built in the Romanesque style  This spectacular irregularity has tended to obscure the fact that it is also a magnificent example of Romanesque architecture and decoration  Begun in 1173, the eight-story round tower is 55 m tall and 16 m in diameter at the base  By 1301 six stories were complete, and the tower was finished about 1350  Italian physicist Galileo conducted his famous experiments with gravity and the relative speed of falling objects from the top story of the tower

8 8 Pisa

9 9 Part III Romanesque in France  The greatest monastic Romanesque church, Cluny III (1088- 1121), did not survive the French Revolution but has been reconstructed in drawings  Double-aisled church almost 137 m long, with 15 small chapels in transepts and ambulatory  Its design influenced Romanesque and Gothic churches in Burgundy and beyond  Splendid Romanesque churches at Autun (1120-1132), Paray- le-Monial (1100?), Périgueux (1120), Conques (1050), Moissac (1120?), Clermont-Ferrand (1262)

10 10 Abbey Church, Fontenay, 1139-47

11 11 Part IV Romanesque in England  Major Romanesque buildings: Cathedrals of Canterbury, Durham, Gloucester, Rochester Cathedral and Southwell  The Romanesque period in English architecture can be roughly dated to the years 1066-1180. The style is also known as “Norman”  The Norman invaders (William the Conqueror, 1066) of England introduced their own style of building into their new island domain

12 12 Durham (Norman-style architecture)

13 13 Conclusion  The international scope of Romanesque art is apparent in the broad range of influences it assimilated and transformed  Among the many and diverse regional styles of Romanesque that flourished throughout Western Europe during the 11th and 12th centuries, the most significant in terms of structural innovation was Norman architecture  In France, the introduction of rib vaulting marked a crucial step in the development of Gothic architecture  The tower of Pisa, closed since 1990 is now reopened after a long and difficult restoration

14 14 References  61580875 61580875  61578082¶=71#p71 61578082¶=71#p71    http:// http:// 

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