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Definition Review British Government – Made the important decisions; had the real power. And appointed the governor to run the colony on its behalf The.

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Presentation on theme: "Definition Review British Government – Made the important decisions; had the real power. And appointed the governor to run the colony on its behalf The."— Presentation transcript:


2 Definition Review British Government – Made the important decisions; had the real power. And appointed the governor to run the colony on its behalf The Governor – was appointed by the British Government and tried to carry out the wishes of the government. He was very powerful. The Executive Council – Consisted of members appointed by the governor for as long as he chose to keep them on the council. They advised the governor and ran the government. The Legislative Council - Consisted of members of the local elite who could be appointed by the governor for life. They advised the governor and proposed laws. The Legislative Assembly – was elected by the people and represented the people. They had limited power since the above groups could veto their recommendations.

3 Important Terms for this Lesson o Radical policy – a plan for extreme changes o Exile – to officially order someone to leave the country

4 The Durham Report Chapter 7 ended with the rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. The British Government sent Lord Durham to investigate the problems that started the rebellion and search for a solution.

5 The Durham Report In Britain Lord Durhanm was considered a radical because he was interested in educating the poor and giving people more control of the government (representative government) His first task was to deal with the Patriotes (Rebels in Lower Canada). He decided to set most of them free but sent the leaders into Exile. If they tried to return to Canada they would be killed. Durham left a year later because he felt he wasn’t getting enough support from the British government.

6 The Durham Report Two Major Recommendations 1. The two colonies of Upper and Lower Canada should become one colony called the United Province of Canada. *This would give the English a majority and help unite English speaking people

7 The Durham Report 2. The new united colony should have responsible government. *All other local powers would be handled by the colonies. *On matters involving only colonist, the Governor would be advised only be his Executive Council with no input from the British Government. *The Executive Council members would be chosen by the leaders of the largest group in the Legislative Assembly rather than by the governor *Members of the Executive Council would keep their jobs only as long as they had the support of more than half the members of the Legislative Assembly, rather than for as long as the governor chose to keep them on the council. **Durham’s Report resulted in the Act of the Union, 1841

8 The Act of Union, 1841 The British government acted on Lord Durham’s recommendations. The Act of Union of 1841 joined Upper and Lower Canada together as the United Province of Canada. This united Upper and Lower Canada and is a first step towards confederations.

9 The Act of Union, 1841 Aim: To unite the into colonies of Canada into a single unit, and to give the English- speaking people control of the newly named colony. Important Points: The system of government was to be the same as in the past. Established English as the official language It united both colonies under one government.

10 Change in Britain’s Colonial Policy Britain was starting to rethink its colonial policies in the 1840s. The purpose of having colonies was to provide cheap natural resources for the imperial power. However, the colonies were becoming very expensive ($$$). Therefore the British government decided to stop giving its colonies special trading protection and to trade freely with other nations. As a result, it affected Britain’s attitude towards its colonies.

11 Partner Activity – (Groups of Two) Lord Durham had two recommendations. Who benefited or were happy because of the first recommendation? Why? Who benefited or was happy because of the second recommendation? Why?

12 Section Summary 1. Who is Lord Durham? 2. What recommendations did he make? 3. What changes did the “Act of Union, 1841” make to Upper and Lower Canada. 4. Why did Britain’s view of its colonies change after the 1840s?


14 Important Terms for this Lesson o Bill – a proposed law that is presented to the Legislative Assembly to be debated and voted on. When it becomes law it is called an Act. o Annexation – joining of one territory to a larger political entity o Manifesto – a public declaration of intentions by an important group of people. o Controversial – A topic that people have different opinions about.

15 Change in Britain’s Colonial Policy Last class we discussed how by the 1840s Britain was beginning to rethink its relationship with its colonies. What was the original purpose of having colonies? Why was Britain not happy about the present agreement between and its colonies. What policy change did Britain make?

16 Lord Elgin – Responsible Government In 1847, Elgin was appointed to be the new governor general of Canada – with the instructions to permit responsible government. (6 years after the Act of Union/9 years after Durham made the recommendations).

17 Think/Pair/Share Compare and contrast the government structure on page 120 with the diagram on page 166. Who does this new structure benefit. How is the diagram on pg 166 more “represenative” then the previous government structure? British Governor Legislativ e Council Executive Council Legislative Assembly Voters

18 Responsible Government To make the government structure more responsible the executive council (or Cabinet) are now chosen from the group with the most elected members in the Legislative Assembly (instead of governor). The most powerful voice in government is the Executive Council (Cabinet). This group is now responsible to the voters. If they lose the trust of the people they must resign (quit). British Governor Legislative Council Executive Council Legislative Assembly Voters

19 Rebellion Losses Bill The first test of “Responsible Government” was with the Rebellion Losses Bill – The bill was going to pay the people of Canada East money for damaged property they might have incurred during the Rebellion of 1837. This bill was controversial because it gave money to people who participated in the rebellion. Rebels in Upper Canada had already received money. The Tories and the governor general were strongly against this bill, but the Legislative Assembly and Executive Council (the Cabinet) supported the bill. This created conflict between the Tories and the Legislative Reformers.

20 Result of the Rebellion Losses Bill Toronto and Kingston – riots in the streets Montreal - People stormed the Parliament Building and set it on fire People threw rotten eggs at the governor. Some Tories were so frustrated with the British government that some suggested Annexation with United States – by signing the Annexation Manifesto.

21 Formation of Political Parties What is a Political Party? – A group of people with similar beliefs about government, who work together to get their candidates elected as representatives. *The group with the most elected members controlled the Legislative Assembly. *Illustrated above are the 4 major political parties in Canada today.

22 Section Summary 1. Discuss and record the reasons the Tories reacted negatively to the Rebellion Losses Bill? 2. Did the Tories have reason to be upset with the Rebellions Loses Bill? 3. Was it fair that people in Lower Canada were getting compensation? (Opinion) 4. What is a political party? 5. What are the political parties in China?political parties in China? * Compensation – to receive money


24 Important Terms for this Lesson o Slate – a thin slice of bluish grey rock on which people wrote o Universal – for everyone. Eg. Universal education means everyone goes to school and the government pays for tuition and books. o Compulsory – means you are required to. Ex. It is compulsory for students to wear their uniform. o Oratory – the art of public speaking o Libel – a printed statement or picture that unjustly injures a person’s reputation.

25 Life in the Province of Canada 1838 - 1855 o Over 80% of the male work force worked in Agriculture or Lumbering. o Habitants in Canada East continued to live and farm on the Seigneurial system. o The largest cities were Montreal (40,000) and Quebec City (31,710) and were the centre for business. o Canada West – the agricultural crop was wheat, which farmers and other people involved in the wheat trade very profitable. o Sewer systems and gas lights were introduced into major Canadian cities during the 1840s. o Railway systems and canals were built to import and export goods from city to city. o The mail and telegraph system also improved during this time period. o Population increased greatly during this time period.

26 Education Changes in Education – Education was still considered to be a privilege for children whose parents could afford to pay. Schools were usually established in people’s houses, churches. Paper was rare so students wrote on a piece of slate. Egerton Ryerson – His parents were Loyalists and wanted to improve Canada’s education system. He was the superintendent of education for Canada West and visited schools throughout Europe and United States to gather ideas about education. He felt school should teach more than reading, writing and arithmetic. He believed history, geogrpahy, government, art and music should be included.

27 Atlantic Provinces Nova Scotia – Of all the British colonies in the British Empire the colony of Nova Scotia was the first to receive responsible government. Responsible government was later granted to the other maritime colonies such as New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward Island.

28 Section Summary Discuss and record the following questions. 1. Who was responsible for making changes to Canadian education? a. What did he want to be included in Education 2. Which province first received responsible government? 3. Who is Joseph Howe and how is he important in this chapter? 4. Why did Canada build a canal to transport goods when they could have used the St. Lawrence river? 5. What was the name of the three canals that were built from 1820-1830.

29 Review Chapter 5,6,7 & 8 Timeline Activity

30 Time-line Activity Using your textbook as a resources you are going to spend today’s class reviewing the following chapters: Chapter 5 – American Revolution Chapter 6 – The Loyalists Chapter 7 – Upper and Lower Canada Chapter 8 – Planting the Seed of Nationhood Your task is to create a Timeline that outlines all of the important events that occurred between (1775-1855).

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