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The Battle of Britain 75 th Anniversary. The Battle of Britain February, 2014 Barry Latter Early Design and Development of the Hurricane and Spitfire.

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Presentation on theme: "The Battle of Britain 75 th Anniversary. The Battle of Britain February, 2014 Barry Latter Early Design and Development of the Hurricane and Spitfire."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Battle of Britain 75 th Anniversary

2 The Battle of Britain February, 2014 Barry Latter Early Design and Development of the Hurricane and Spitfire

3 The Battle of Britain Thomas Sopwith (1888 – 1989) WW1 airplane pilot, instructor and designer Liquidated his own company in 1919 Led the Hawker Company from 1922 until 1974

4 The Battle of Britain Harry Hawker (1889 – 1921) Demonstration and test pilot for Sopwith Formed Hawker Engineering Company in 1919 Died in crash following hemorrhage in flight

5 The Battle of Britain Sydney Camm (1893 – 1966) Hired by Sopwith in 1923 Chief Designer 1925 British Air Ministry issued spec for “Light Day Bomber” in 1926 Camm designed Hawker Hart in 1928

6 The Battle of Britain Hawker Hart - first flight June 1928

7 The Battle of Britain

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9 Prototype Hurricane K5083

10 The Battle of Britain Flight Lieutenant P.W.S. “George” Bulman Chief Test Pilot Hawker Aircraft Known for precise and well timed air show appearances

11 The Battle of Britain Hurricane basic fuselage structure

12 The Battle of Britain The Dumb-bell Spar Camm’s rolled steel main spar – the “Dumb bell spar”

13 The Battle of Britain Hurricane fuselage structural joints Bolted for ease of maintenance Wooden formers are then bolted to resulting structure Wooden stringers then attached to formers top hold fabric skin

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19 One of the first Hurricanes delivered to the RAF 1938 Note the Watts two-blade fixed-pitch wooden propeller

20 The Battle of Britain Hurricane deliveries First production deliveries to 111 Sqn at Northolt began in December 1937 with delivery of first 600 batch complete by October 1939 Subsequent mod program for fitting Merlin III engines, Rotol or DH variable pitch props and armor. Hurricane 1 built by Hawker and Gloster (part of Hawker-Siddeley Group)

21 The Battle of Britain PZ865 – “The Last of the Many” Cranfield College of Aeronautics 1961 Flown by Hugh Mereweather

22 The Battle of Britain PZ865 Hurricane IIC Battle of Britain Memorial Flight

23 The Battle of Britain PZ865 2014 – colors of 34 Sqn. SEAC RAF Coningsby

24 The Battle of Britain Supermarine Spitfire

25 The Battle of Britain Reginald “R.J.” Mitchell 1895 – 1937 Chief Designer Supermarine Aviation Works (Vickers) Ltd “Mitchell wedded good engineering to aerodynamic grace and made science his guide” ( Colston Shepherd – 1949)

26 The Battle of Britain

27 Earnest Hives (1886 – 1965) Chief test driver 1908 Head of the Experimental Department 1916 Head of development RR “R” engine General works manager 1936 Elected to the board 1937

28 The Battle of Britain Rolls-Royce “R” engine Rated at 2350 hp powered S-6B Became the Griffon PV-12 initially at 1100 hp Developed into Merlin rated ultimately at 2600 hp

29 The Battle of Britain Supermarine S-5 1927 Supermarine S-6 1929 Supermarine S-6B 1931

30 The Battle of Britain Air Ministry Specification F.7/30 “A fighter capable of at least 250 mph and armed with four machine guns” Supermarine Type 224 The winning “Gloster Gladiator”

31 The Battle of Britain “ ….. The (Vickers-Supermarine) design team would do better by devoting their time not to the official experimental fighter (i.e.F.7/30) but to a real killer fighter……my opposite number in Rolls-Royce…A.F Sidgreaves and I decided that our two companies should … finance … such an aircraft …… …. that in no circumstances would any technical member of the Air Ministry be consulted or allowed to interfere with the designer” Sir Robert McLean – Chairman Vickers Aviation Ltd.

32 The Battle of Britain F7/30 refined – Supermarine Drawing 30000 sheet 11 Dated September 1934

33 The Battle of Britain Beverley Shenstone Canadian aerodynamicist Joined Vickers-Supermarine in 1932 Used Ludwig Prandtl’s theories of elliptic wing planforms in the Spitfire design Spitfire wings (NACA 2200 series) were VERY thin by comparison with others - 13% root T/C tapering to 6% T/C at tip

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36 Joseph (Joe) Smith (1897 – 1956) Chief Draughtsman under Mitchell Succeeded Mitchell in 1937 as manager of Design Department and then Chief designer

37 The Battle of Britain Joseph Smith’s Spitfire main spar construction

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42 L-R “Mutt” Summers, “Agony” Payn, RJM, S. Scott-hall, Jeffrey Quill

43 The Battle of Britain

44 Spitfire deliveries First production Mk.I deliveries were to 19 Sqn at Duxford between August and December of 1938 Subsequent mod program for fitting Merlin III engines, Rotol or DH variable pitch props, armor and conversion to metal covered wings Mk.II deliveries began in June 1940 but Mk.Is bore the brunt of the Battle

45 The Battle of Britain Airplane Max. speed @ Altitude FT height SL 5,000 ft 15,000 ft 20,000 ft 25,000 ft Mk.1 Spitfire 35518,500 965 bhp 282302342351340 Mk.1 Hurricane 31117,500 965 bhp 246264303305290 Maximum speed in mph at: Ref. “Birth of a Legend” by Jeffrey Quill

46 The Battle of Britain Airplane Weight empty Max. Weight SpanLengthEngineService Ceiling (100 fpm) Mk.1 Spitfire 4810 lb.5785 lb.36’ 10”29’ 11”RR Merlin III 37,400 ft. Mk.1 Hurricane 4982 lb.6532 lb.40’ 0”31’ 4”RR Merlin III 35,000 ft. Ref. “Birth of a Legend” by Jeffrey Quill

47 The Battle of Britain Airplane Operational ceiling (500 fpm) Time to Operational ceiling ROC @ 25,000 ft Time to 25,000 ft Mk.1 Spitfire 34,000 ft21 min 33 sec1660 fpm11 min 33 sec Mk.1 Hurricane 31,400 ft21 min 15 sec1260 fpm13 min 12 sec Ref. “Birth of a Legend” by Jeffrey Quill

48 The Battle of Britain At the start of the Battle, 32 squadrons of Hurricanes were operational 19 squadrons of Spitfires were operational By August 1940 10 Group had 3 sqns of Hurricanes, 3 sqns Spitfires 11 Group had 13 sqns Hurricanes, 6 sqns Spitfires 12 Group had 5 sqns Hurricanes, 6 sqns Spitfires 13 group had 8 Sqns Hurricanes, 3 sqns Spitfires

49 The Battle of Britain

50 Charles Kettering (1876-1958) General Motors Corporation's research chief Initiated investigation into causes of “Knocking” (aka “pinking”)

51 The Battle of Britain Tom Midgley (1889 – 1944) Lead mechanical Engineer & Chemist GM Developed “Ethyl” (Tetra Ethyl Lead) Suffered ill effects of lead poisoning

52 The Battle of Britain Sir Harry Ricardo (1885 – 1974) Engine researcher and inventor Developed variable compression engine to test “Octane Rating” of gasoline fuels

53 The Battle of Britain Questions?

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55 Back up slides

56 The Battle of Britain Supermarine S-4 1925 Napier Lion engine Curtiss C.R.3 1923 D-12 engine Supermarine S-5 1927 Napier Lion engine

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59 Hawker Fury

60 The Battle of Britain Rolls-Royce Kestrel Hawker Hart In-service 1930

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65 No. 65 (East India) Squadron RAF Hornchurch June 1940 W/Cdr. Robert Stanford Tuck DSO, DFC & two bars, AFC (27 victories when shot down in February 1942)

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67 Curtiss D-12 engine Fairey Fox light bomber In-service 1926, initially powered by a Curtiss D-12 … then RR Kestrel

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69 Henri Biard – 1922 Schneider Trophy winner

70 The Battle of Britain

71 Vickers-Supermarine – the war years Mk.1 Spitfire Mk. V Spitfire Mk. IX Spitfire

72 The Battle of Britain Hawker - Siddeley In 1933, H.G. Hawker Engineering was renamed Hawker Aviation In 1935, Tommy Sopwith acquired……….. Gloster Aircraft Armstrong-Whitworth Aircraft Armstrong Siddeley Motors A.V. Roe ….. and created Hawker – Siddeley

73 The Battle of Britain Supermarine Spitfire Production (includes derivative models up to Spiteful) Mk.1 – 1550 – Merlin III rated at 1030 HP Mk.II – 921 - Merlin III rated at 1030 HP Mk.V – 6476 – Merlin 45 rated at 1470 HP Mk. IX – 5653 – Merlin 66 rated at 1575 HP Mk. XIV/Mk. XVI – 2010 – Griffon 65 rated at 2050 HP A total of 20, 351 Spitfires were manufactured by the end of production in 1948

74 The Battle of Britain What made the Spitfire design so good? Basic semi-elliptic wing planform Low wing loading - 21-25 lb/sq. in. Knife edge elliptic wing tips Wing twist +2 deg to – 0.5 deg Thin wing Gentle pressure gradients – more stable boundary layer Wing/body fairing Small tail unit “Meredith” effect on lower wing surface components Minimal frontal area cowling Ultra slim fuselage

75 The Battle of Britain Dennis Crowley- Milling

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77 Joe Smith

78 The Battle of Britain J9052, the prototype Hart, first flew in June 1928, being delivered to the Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment at RAF Martlesham Heath on 8 September. It demonstrated good performance and handling, reaching 176 mph (283 km/h) in level flight and 282 miles per hour (454 km/h) in a vertical dive. The competition culminated in the choice of the Hawker Hart in April 1929. General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 29 ft 4 in (8.94 m) Wingspan: 37 ft 3 in (11.36 m) Height: 10 ft 5 in (3.18 m) Wing area: 349.5 ft² (32.5 m²) Airfoil: RAF 28[10] Empty weight: 2,530 lb (1,150 kg) Max. takeoff weight: 4,596 lb (2,089 kg) Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce Kestrel IB water-cooled V12 engine, 510 hp (380 kW)

79 The Battle of Britain Performance Maximum speed: 161 kn (185 mph, 298 km/h) at 13,000 ft Stall speed: 39 kn (45 mph, 72 km/h) [41] Range: 374 nmi (430 mi, 692 km) Service ceiling: 22,800 ft (6,950 m) Wing loading: 13.2 lb/ft² (64.3 kg/m²) Power/mass: 0.11 hp/lb (0.182 kW/kg) Climb to 10,000 ft 8 minutes, 30 seconds Armament Guns: 1 × synchronized forward firing.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun, 1 ×.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun on Scarff ring in rear cockpit. Bombs: Up to 500 lb (227 kg) bombs under wings.

80 The Battle of Britain Hurricane 1 details Merlin II engine – 1030 hp/3000 rpm/16250/6.25 psid boost Watts two bladed fixed pitch Type Z28 prop/ 11’3” dia 73 lb. (Later) Merlin III – 1029 hp/3000 rpm/16250/6.75 psid boost Rotol three bladed constant speed right hand Type RMS7 prop/ 35 degree pitch range/ 10’3” dia. Also fitted with DH two position prop. 40’0” span/ 31’4” long/ height 13’2” with Watts prop vertical/ 12’11 ½ “ Rotol prop (one blade vertical). 258 Sq. In gross wing area. 77 Imp. gals. fuel Inward retracting MLG/ 7’7” track/800 X 10” wheels on Vickers Pneumatic oleo/ Dunlop pneumatic brakes 6447lb (Merlin III with Rotol prop) normal loaded weight/18galls coolant/8 Brownings 212lb plus 2660 rounds (202 lb)

81 The Battle of Britain Sydney Camm Joined Hawkers as a 29 year old draughtsman in 1923. “…A hard swearing, hook nosed, tall 30-year old” – Harald Penrose “…The finest designer of aircraft that there has ever been” – Tommy Sopwith “…He was a genius, but often quite impossible” – Tommy Sopwith Camm became Chief Designer in 1925

82 The Battle of Britain Hawker Audax – Army cooperation (1930) Hawker Osprey – Navy (1932) Hawker Fury – single seat RAF fighter (1931)

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85 Schneider Trophy

86 The Battle of Britain


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