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Imaging studies of nervous system Dr. Abubakr 26.5.2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Imaging studies of nervous system Dr. Abubakr 26.5.2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imaging studies of nervous system Dr. Abubakr

2 Skull X-ray. MRI of Brain: sagital, transverse & coronal sections. Brain CT scan “transverse section”. Cerebral angiography. Myelography.

3 Skull X-ray.

4 True lateral radiograph: Head views:

5

6 Posterior-anterior radiograph: Head views:

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8 Occipitomental radiograph:

9 Head views: Occipitomental radiograph:

10 MRI of Brain: sagital section The frontal air sinus (1).(1) sphenoidal air sinus (2).(2) The nasal cavity (3). (3) nasopharynx (4).(4) foramen magnum (5). (5) odontoid process (6). (6)

11 optic chiasma (1).(1) pituitary gland (2).(2) cerebral aqueduct (often called the aqueduct of Sylvius) (3) (3) fourth ventricle (4)(4) tentorium cerebelli (5) divides the cranial cavity within the skull into a supratentorial compartment and an infratentorial compartment.(5) The paired mamillary bodies(6) lie in the floor of the third ventricle. These structures form part of the limbic system of the brain.(6) MRI of Brain: sagital section

12 The corpus callosum is itself subdivided in several regions. Note the genu (1), body (2) and splenium (3).(1)(2)(3) The anterior column of the fornix(4).(4) The thalamus is the largest nuclear mass within the entire human nervous system (5).(5) The hypothalamus (6)(6) The pineal gland (7) synthesizes melatonin, a hormone implicated in the waking/sleeping cycle.(7) MRI of Brain: sagital section

13 transverse section of the brain

14 Cortex of the cerebrum

15 Grey matter

16 Basal nuclei & thalamus

17 ventricles

18 Internal capsule

19 External capsule

20 Extreme capsule

21 1.Lateral Ventricle. 2.Third ventricle. 3.Caudate Nucleus. 4.a: Anterior Limb of Internal Capsule. b: Genu of Internal Capsule. c: Posterior limb of Internal Capsule. 5.Lentiform Nucleus. 6.Insula. 7.Insular artery. 8.Thalamus. 9.a. Gray Matter. b. White Matter. MRI of Brain: transverse section

22 1.Longitudinal fissure. 2.cingulate sulcus. 3.cingulated gyrus. 4.corpus callosum. 5.lateral ventricle. 6.third ventricle. 7.cerebral aqueduct. 8.midbrain. 9.cerebellar hemisphere. 10.fourth ventricle cavity. 11.temporal lobe. 12.lateral sulcus. MRI of Brain: coranal section

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24 1.Frontal Lobe. 2.Parietal Lobe. 3.Occipital Lobe. 4.Septum Pellucidum. 5.a. Rostrum of Corpus Callosum. b. Body of Corpus Callosum. c. Splenium of Corpus Callosum. 6.Pituitry. 7.Sphenoid air sinus. 8.Nasopharynx. 9.Frontal Air sinus. 10.Pons. 11.Medulla Oblongata. 12.Cerebellum. 13.Spinal Cord. 14.Fourth ventricle. 15.Sinus Confluence.

25 Brain CT scan “transverse section”. The dark spaces within the bones represent the air sinuses. The frontal air sinus (A).(A) The nasal cavity (B).(B) In the lateral walls of the nasal cavity are numerous small dark areas representing the ethmoid air cells (C).(C) In the mid-line and at the posterior to the nasal cavity is the sphenoid air sinus (D).(D)

26 The orbit (A)(A) The eye ball(C).(C) Optic nerve (D)(D) Optic canal (E) or foramen.(E) The medial rectus muscle (B).(B) Brain CT scan “transverse section”.

27 Use this image to study the bony features of the skull. frontal bone(A).(A) the zygoma(B). The temporal bone has a thin squamous component (C) and a much thicker petrous part (D).(B)(C)(D) Mastoid air cells (E).(E) The pinna (F).(F) The occipital bone (G).(G) Brain CT scan “transverse section”.

28 1.Frontal lobe. 2.Longitudinal fissure. 3.Septum pellucidum. 4.Anterior horn of lateral ventricle. 5.Caudate nucleus. 6.Third ventricle. 7.Posterior horn of tateral ventricle & choroid plexus. 8.falx cerebri. 9.Internal occipital protuberance. 10.Occipital lobe. 11.thalamus 12.White matter. Brain CT scan “transverse section”.

29 Cerebral angiography Abbreviations:  ACI - internal carotid artery  ACA - anterior cerebral artery  ACM - middle cerebral artery  BA - basilar artery  VA - vertebral artery  PCA - posterior cerebral artery  PICA - posterior inferior cerebellar artery Carotid angiogram Anterior view Carotid angiogram Lateral View Vertebral angiogram Anterior view Vertebral angiogram Lateral View

30 Myelography

31 Some Abnormalities: Space occupying lesions: e.g. tumor, AV malformation, abscess…

32 Some Abnormalities: prolapsed Intervertebral disc

33 Some Abnormalities Epidural hemorrhage:

34 Some Abnormalities Subdural hematoma:

35 Some Abnormalities Hydrocephalus

36 Thanks


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