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Anticoagulant, Antiplatelet, and Thrombolytic Drugs

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1 Anticoagulant, Antiplatelet, and Thrombolytic Drugs
Chapter 52 Anticoagulant, Antiplatelet, and Thrombolytic Drugs 1

2 Physiology and Pathophysiology of Coagulation
Hemostasis Stage 1: formation of platelet plug Platelet aggregation Stage 2: coagulation Intrinsic coagulation pathway Extrinsic coagulation pathway Keeping hemostasis under control Physiologic removal of clots Thrombosis Arterial thrombosis Venous thrombosis 2

3 Overview of Drugs for Thromboembolic Disorders
Three major groups Anticoagulants Antiplatelets Thrombolytics See Table 52-1 3

4 Anticoagulants Reduce the formation of fibrin Two mechanisms of action
Inhibit the synthesis of clotting factors Inhibit the activity of clotting factors 4

5 Heparin and Heparin Derivatives
Heparin (unfractionated) Enhances antithrombin Sources Lungs of cattle Intestines of pigs Rapid-acting anticoagulant Administered by injection only IV Continuous and intermittent Deep subQ 5

6 Heparin (Unfractionated)
Therapeutic uses Preferred anticoagulant during pregnancy and when rapid anticoagulation is required Pulmonary embolism (PE) Stroke evolving Massive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) Open heart surgery Renal dialysis Low-dose therapy postoperatively Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) Adjunct to thrombolytic therapy 6

7 Heparin (Unfractionated)
Adverse effects Hemorrhage Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia Hypersensitivity reactions Contraindicated Thrombocytopenia Uncontrollable bleeding During and immediately after surgery of the eye, brain, or spinal cord Antidote for OD: protamine sulfate Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) 7

8 Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins
Heparin preparations composed of molecules that are shorter than those found in unfractionated heparin Therapeutic uses Prevention of DVT following surgery Including replacement of hip, knee Treatment of established DVT Prevention of ischemic complications Patients with unstable angina, non–Q-wave MI, and STEMI 8

9 Low-Molecular-Weight Heparins
Administered subQ Dosage based on body weight Antidote for toxicity: protamine sulfate Costs more than unfractionated heparin Does not require monitoring; can be given at home Adverse effects and interactions Bleeding (but less than with unfractionated heparin) Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia Severe neurologic injury for patients undergoing spinal puncture or spinal epidural anesthesia 9

10 Other LMW Heparin In the United States, three LMW heparins are available: Enoxaparin Dalteparin Tinzaparin

11 Warfarin, an Oral Anticoagulant
Originally discovered while cattle were observed ingesting spoiled clover silage Used as rat poison Failed suicide attempt with large dose brought renewed clinical interest Clinical use Oral anticoagulant with delayed onset Vitamin K antagonist Blocks biosynthesis of factors VII, IX, and X and prothrombin 11

12 Warfarin, an Oral Anticoagulant
Therapeutic uses Not useful in emergencies Long-term prophylaxis of thrombosis Prevention of venous thrombosis and associated pulmonary embolism Prevention of thromboembolism (in patients with prosthetic heart valves) Prevention of thrombosis during atrial fibrillation 12

13 Warfarin, an Oral Anticoagulant
Monitoring treatment Prothrombin time (PT) International normalized ratio (INR) Adverse effects Hemorrhage (vitamin K for toxicity) Fetal hemorrhage and teratogenesis from use during pregnancy Use during lactation Other adverse effects 13

14 Warfarin, an Oral Anticoagulant
Drug interactions Drugs that increase anticoagulant effects Drugs that promote bleeding Drugs that decrease anticoagulant effects Heparin Aspirin Acetaminophen 14

15 Warfarin, an Oral Anticoagulant
Warfarin overdose Vitamin K Dietary vitamin K Contrasts between warfarin and heparin 15

16 Direct Thrombin Inhibitors
Direct inhibition of thrombin (unlike heparin, which enhances the activity of antithrombin) Dabigatran Etexilate Approved in 2010 Oral prodrug undergoes conversion to dabigatran Advantages of dabigatran: doesn’t require monitoring of anticoagulation, little risk of adverse interactions, same dose can be used for all patients regardless of age or weight

17 Direct Thrombin Inhibitors
Hiruden Analog: Bivalirudin (Angiomax) Prevents clot formation (combined with aspirin) in patients with unstable angina who are undergoing coronary angioplasty Mechanism of action Facilitates the actions of antithrombin Prevents conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin Prevents activation of factor XIII Adverse effects Bleeding Back pain Nausea, headache 17

18 Other Direct Thrombin Inhibitors
Lepirudin (Refludan) Argatroban (formerly known as Acova) Desirudin (Ipravask) Dabigatran (Pradaxa) 18

19 Selective Factor Xa Inhibitors
Produce selective inhibition of factor Xa Fondaparinux Activation of antithrombin Injection Rivaroxaban Binds directly with factor Xa to cause inactivation Oral 19

20 Fondaparinux (Arixtra)
Synthetic anticoagulant Selective inhibition Therapeutic uses Prevention of DVT following surgery Treatment of acute PE (in conjunction with warfarin) Treatment of acute DVT (in conjunction with warfarin) Adverse effects Bleeding Avoid in patients weighing less than 50 kg Thrombocytopenia Spinal or epidural hematoma 20

21 Rivaroxaban (Xarelto)
Oral anticoagulant approved in 2011 Does not require laboratory monitoring Patients who received rivaroxaban were found to be much less likely to experience DVT, VTE, PE, or death 21

22 Antithrombin (AT) Endogenous compound that suppresses coagulation, primarily by inhibiting thrombin and factor Xa Used to prevent thrombosis in patients with inherited AT deficiency Two preparations, marketed as Atryn and Thrombate III

23 Antiplatelet Drugs Aspirin (ASA) Ticlopidine (Ticlid)
Inhibition of cyclooxygenase Adverse effect Increases risk for GI bleeding Ticlopidine (Ticlid) Inhibits ADP-mediated aggregation Adverse effects Hematologic effects Clopidogrel (Plavix) ADP receptor antagonist 23

24 Aspirin (ASA) Therapeutic uses Ischemic stroke
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) Chronic stable angina Unstable angina Coronary stenting Acute MI Previous MI Primary prevention of MI 24

25 Aspirin (ASA) Adverse effects Bleeding
GI bleeding and hemorrhagic stroke Enteric-coated tablets may not reduce the risk for GI bleeding 25

26 Clopidogrel (Plavix) Therapeutic uses
Prevents blockage of coronary artery stents Reduces thrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes MI, ischemic stroke, and vascular death Similar adverse effects to those of aspirin Use with caution in combination with other drugs that promote bleeding 26

27 Antiplatelet Drugs Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists
Most effective antiplatelet drugs “Super aspirins” Reversible blockade of platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptors 27

28 Other Antiplatelet Drugs
Dipyridamole Dipyrindamole + aspirin Aggrenox Cilostazol

29 Thrombolytic Drugs Streptokinase (Streptase); Alteplase (tPa)
Major adverse effect – bleeding (minor oozing to life-threatening amount) Likely sites of bleeding Recent wounds, needle puncture sites, invasive procedure sites Anticoagulants increase the risk for hemorrhage Blood replacement may need to be considered

30 Minimizing the Risk of Bleeding
Minimizing physical manipulation of the patient Avoiding subQ and IM injections Minimizing invasive procedures Minimizing concurrent use of anticoagulants (eg, heparin, warfarin, dabigatran) Minimizing concurrent use of antiplatelet drugs (eg, aspirin, clopidogrel)

31 Streptokinase (Streptase)
Binds to plasminogen to form active complex Therapeutic uses Acute coronary thrombosis (acute MI) Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) Massive pulmonary emboli Adverse effects Bleeding – excessive fibrinolysis can be reversed with IV aminocaproic acid (Amicar) Antibody production Hypotension Fever

32 Alteplase (tPa) Converts plasminogen to plasmin
Given in accelerated schedule Therapeutic uses Myocardial infarction Ischemic stroke Massive pulmonary emboli 32

33 Alteplase (tPa) Adverse effects Advantages Bleeding Fever
Risk for intracranial bleeding higher than with streptokinase Fever Advantages Does not cause allergic reactions Does not induce hypotension 33

34 Other Thrombolytic Drugs
Tenecteplase Reteplase 34

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