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Assessment of Hemorrhagic VS Ischemic Stroke As told by JJ Baumann MS, RN, CNS.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment of Hemorrhagic VS Ischemic Stroke As told by JJ Baumann MS, RN, CNS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment of Hemorrhagic VS Ischemic Stroke As told by JJ Baumann MS, RN, CNS

2 Cerebral Vessel Vignettes

3 Couple of Clots 70 year old female Smoker Mopping the floor and started feeling dizzy and tired Witnessed sudden onset of aphasia, right sided weakness

4 12: 15 - last seen normal 12:40 - stroke code activated – pre hospital EMS states right side weakness 12:45 - Handsome paramedic arrives with patient who only has a right facial droop

5 Time to relax? A.Don’t cancel stroke code. Let’s give tPA. B.Cancel stroke code, but still get imaging. C.Scold EMS for not knowing facial droop from complete weakness. D.Get EMS call back number, the charge nurse also thinks he is hot.


7 Déjà vu Cardiac cath lab – heart fixed. On the table, she suddenly stops talking and has right sided weakness.

8 Stenting the Left ICA

9 48 Hours Later Her requests: 1.Thank paramedic that brought her to the hospital so quickly 2.Let her go home now My request: 1. Stop smoking!

10 What is this?

11 200,000 cigarette packs, the same number of Americans who die every six months due to smoking.

12 Smoking

13 Under Pressure 62 year old male PMHx: Diabetes Hypertension Renal issues? Medications: 2 blood pressure medications 1 oral antiglycemic aspirin

14 Intracranial Hemorrhage 9 am: sudden headache and left sided weakness

15 Now what? A.Get frequent neuro exams? B.Have neurosurgery fix it? C.Stop the bleeding? D.Find the cause?

16 Primary Hemorrhage Amyloid – Lobar HTN -Thalamus -Basal Ganglia -Pontine -Cerebellum

17 Secondary Hemorrhage Coagulopathies Tumor AVM / aneurysm Illicit drug use Excess EtOH

18 Getting sleepy… Frequent neuro checksPatient becoming more sleepy Head of bed > 30 degreesDone Blood pressureTitrating nicardipine gtt to keep SBP < 160 Fever controlNo fever SedationPatient calm Surgical or medical?Deep territory, medical management

19 CT scan Bleed is stable More swelling Ventricles – no change

20 Hyperosmolar Therapy Isotonic hypertonic hypotonic 300 to 320 mOsm/kg 280-300 mOsm/kg 0.45% Na D5W Mannitol 3% NaCl

21 DO IT FOR THE BRAIN ! Neuro exam Blood pressure control Head of bed Hyperosmolar therapy Sedation Fever control Prepare for EVD placement

22 Stroke Code on ortho 72 yo male Hip fx POD 2 Sudden onset left facial droop & slurred speech

23 Increased risk of MI/ PE 1 week after surgery and stroke 1-2 weeks after surgery. Patient is at increased risk of stroke after surgery if:  They have had a stroke.  They have atrial fibrillation.

24 Risky Business? Hypertension Diabetes – type 2 Overweight There was something else, but….


26 Exacerbation of Old Symptoms Metabolic – Electrolytes – Medications – Hypercarbia Infectious – WBC – Fever Exacerbation of stroke symptoms by infection and metabolic perturbations – A diffusion-weighted MRI study S. Iyadurai, K. Knievel, M. Flaster (St. Louis, Phoenix, Las Vegas, US)

27 If a Tree Falls in the Forest… 87 year old female EMS: Trauma! AMS following a non-witnessed fall at about 7 pm Family: Patient got up to get ready for bed. There was a loud thud in the bedroom, and she was found "down" by her vanity table gripping tightly unto her walker and chair and "shaking." Trauma Team: She sustained multiple lacerations, the worst of which is on her R forearm.

28 Medications diltiazem (CARDIZEM CD) 120 mg sustained release capsule losartan (COZAAR) 25 mg tab furosemide (LASIX) 20 mg tab pantoprazole (PROTONIX) 40 mg delayed release tablet acetaminophen (TYLENOL) 325 mg tab Multi vitamin

29 Paroxysmal AF CVA with residual R visual field neglect High blood pressure Congestive heart failure Dementia

30 Seeing the Trees for the Forest Not clear if fall was mechanical Fall not witnessed Pre-syncope?  Seizure?  TIA? X-rays, labs, spot EKG, MRI…

31 Multiple acute infarctions posterior circulations.

32 Posterior circulation – Vertebral and Basilar Cranial nerve deficits – 3 rd nerve palsy – Nystagmus – Vertigo – Dysphagia – Dysarthria – Diplopia Cortical blindness / visual field loss Truncal or limb ataxia Spastic paresis Quadriplegia Weakness of facial, lingual, and pharyngeal muscles

33 Now what? Acute treatment? - tPA - NIR Prevention? - ASA - Plavix / Aggrenox - Coumadin / Pradaxa

34 CHADS2 Score in Atrial Fibrillation CHAD2 itemPoints Congestive heart failure1 Hypertension (systolic >140 mmHg)1 Age greater than 75 years1 Diabetes1 Prior cerebral ischemia / TIA2

35 Annual Stroke Risk CHADS2 ScoreYearly risk of stroke 01.9% 12.8% 24.0% 35.9% 48.5% 512.5% 618.2% BF Gage et al. Validation of clinical classification schemes for predicting stroke. Results from the national registry of atrial fibrillation. JAMA 2001 285: 2864-2870.

36 Balancing Act CHADS Score is 5, 12.5% chance per year will have a stroke Two GI Bleeds requiring hospitalization in past 3 months


38 Grandma 82 year-old woman who lives with her daughter’s family. She needs help with groceries and preparing meals, but she is otherwise independent and enjoys life. Grandkids love her.

39 Treat? 1:45 pm Unable to talk, right hemi (NIH – 22) 2:30 pm EMS arrives Stroke Code

40 Number of patients who benefit (and are harmed) per 100 patients treated with tPA Lansberg et al. Stroke 2009 Grandma

41 4:13 pm: tPA complete! Why has she not improved? Cath lab? Completed her stroke? tPA did not work?

42 Neuro Interventional Radiology -Intra-arterial t-PA -Mechanical devices -Merci -Penumbra -Solitaire

43 NIH > 12 95% chance large vessel occlusion NIHSSChance large vessel occl 5-934% 10-1442% >15100%

44 Completed the Stroke? The Ischemic Penumbra Core Infarct Ischemic Penumbra: zone of salvageable tissue surrounding core infarct

45 Mean MTT 8Mean XE-CT CBF 15 Mean Tmax 4s 4:15 pm: Start Stroke MRI with DWI and PWI A small DWI lesion … but a large PWI lesion

46 4:46 pm: Case start 5:38 pm:The vessel is open Before TherapyAfter Therapy Courtesy of Maarten Lansberg, MD

47 Home is Where the Brain Is! Walks home with family. Without treatment would likely have been severely disabled waiting for nursing home placement. Courtesy of Maarten Lansberg, MD

48 Questions?

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