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Tactical Combat Casualty Care

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Presentation on theme: "Tactical Combat Casualty Care"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
General Goals: … This presentation takes 100 minutes to present, if delivered all at once. If it is divided, it should be split just before the “CASEVAC Care” section. The first part takes 60 minutes to deliver. The second part takes 40 to deliver. Troy R Johnson, MD MAJ, USA, MC, FS Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

2 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Agenda Objectives Mortality in Combat Preventable mortality Care under fire Tactical Casualty care Evacuation Military vs. Civilian tactical care Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

3 Discussion Objectives
Identify the top two causes of preventable combat mortality List three methods of controlling hemorrhage in the field Write both two-condition criteria for diagnosis of tension pneumothorax Outline additional equipment and skills available with evacuation assets Compare and contrast civilian and military tactical medical care Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

4 Caveats When Applying Civilian Literature
Different weapons Less pre-existing dehydration Pre-hospital time Surgical intervention Resource Monitoring Threat Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

5 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Combat Mortality Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

6 Killed in Action (86% KIA)
Combat Mortality Killed in Action (86% KIA) versus Died of Wounds (12% DOW) This picture shows the effects of even a small rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) on the human body. [Figure 1-41 from the Textbook of Military Medicine, Pt I, Vol 5, p 30] Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

7 31% are due to penetrating head trauma
Combat Mortality KIA 31% are due to penetrating head trauma This picture demonstrates that the stress waves created by a high-velocity round can cause a hydraulic burst effect on the closed cranium. The explosion of the skull occurs at its weakest points, not necessarily at the point of bullet exit. [Figure 4-34 from the Textbook of Military Medicine, Pt I, Vol 5, p 145] Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

8 25% are due to surgically uncorrectable penetrating torso trauma
Combat Mortality KIA 25% are due to surgically uncorrectable penetrating torso trauma This picture shows multiple exit wounds caused by several 7.62-mm bullets to the back. Note that one is in the region of the heart. [Figure 1-12 from the Textbook of Military Medicine, Pt I, Vol 5, p 11] Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

9 10% are due to potentially correctable penetrating torso trauma
Combat Mortality KIA 10% are due to potentially correctable penetrating torso trauma The large entrance wound in this picture is most likely due to the 5.56-mm bullet striking the casualty’s web gear causing yaw or fragmentation before entering the skin. [Figure 4-20 from the Textbook of Military Medicine, Pt I, Vol 5, p 128] Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

10 9% are due to potentially correctable extremity trauma
Combat Mortality KIA 9% are due to potentially correctable extremity trauma This picture shows a large exit wound in the distal medial thigh due to fragmentation of the 5.56-mm bullet after striking the femur. For orientation, the casualty’s scrotum can be seen on the right side and his left knee at the bottom. [Figure 4-44 from the Textbook of Military Medicine, Pt I, Vol 5, p 152] Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

11 7% are due to mutilating blast injuries
Combat Mortality KIA 7% are due to mutilating blast injuries This picture shows the effects of larger pieces of shrapnel from high-explosive artillery or mortar random-fragment munitions. [Figure 1-23 from the Textbook of Military Medicine, Pt I, Vol 5, p 18] Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

12 5% are due to tension pneumothorax
Combat Mortality KIA 5% are due to tension pneumothorax This picture shows eight 7.62-mm bullet holes in the left posterolateral thoraco-abdominal area. For orientation, the casualty’s axilla can be seen in the left lower corner. [Figure 1-12 from the Textbook of Military Medicine, Pt I, Vol 5, p 11] Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

13 1% are due to airway obstruction
Combat Mortality KIA 1% are due to airway obstruction (1/2 actual airway) (1/2 decreased LOC) Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

14 12% are mostly due to complications of shock or late infection
Combat Mortality DOW 12% are mostly due to complications of shock or late infection The top picture shows a casualty hit by a piece of shrapnel from a 105-mm shell that injured his T2 vertebra, left lung, left subclavian artery, and likely gave him a pneumothorax and massive hemothorax. He died within 3 hours of wounding. [Figure 4-15 from the Textbook of Military Medicine, Pt I, Vol 5, p 125] The bottom picture shows a casualty who made it to surgery for a repair of his Axillary artery after a GSW to the left shoulder. However, gas gangrene set in within 8 hours of wounding. A forequarter amputation was performed, but the casualty died 22 hours after this second surgery. Note the edema and bronze discoloration of the skin over the areas of the clostridial myonecrosis. [Figure 5-33 from the Textbook of Military Medicine, Pt I, Vol 5, p 212] Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

15 Serious Wounds in Vietnam Surviving to Facility
Face Eyes 5% Head 4% Neck Cervical Spine 1% Thorax Thoracic Spine 5% Abdomen Lumbar Spine Pelvis 8% Soft Tissues 44% Multiple sites with major injuries 5% Extremities bony & neural 28% Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

16 PREVENTABLE Mortality
Airway obstruction (6%) Tension pneumothorax (33%) Hemorrhage from extremity wounds (60%) Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

17 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Care Under Fire Tactical Field Care Evacuation Care This is a list of different situations. I don’t like to call them phases, because that implies a time-order or sequence to me. What are the characteristics that define each of these situations? Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

18 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Care Under Fire Care rendered while subjected to effective hostile fire Initial wounds Additional wounds Medical equipment limited Carried by casualty or medical personnel Difficult to use equipment in situation Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

19 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Tactical Field Care Care rendered when not subjected to effective hostile fire Warm zone Available medical equipment limited Individuals Team or unit Time prior to evacuation is highly variable Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

20 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Evacuation Care Care rendered during transportation out of tactical environment Aircraft Ground vehicle Watercraft Pre-staged personnel and medical equipment available on platform Evacuation terminology MEDEVAC CASEVAC Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

21 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Care Under Fire Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

22 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Care Under Fire Return fire Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

23 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Care Under Fire Return fire What does returning fire have to do with medical care? Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

24 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Care Under Fire Return fire What does returning fire have to do with medical care? Victory is the best medicine !! Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

25 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Care Under Fire Move the casualty to cover Don’t get shot while trying to do #1 Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

26 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Care Under Fire Top priority is early control of life-threatening external hemorrhage! Exsanguination from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield Hemorrhage from extremity wounds was the cause of death in more than 2500 casualties in Vietnam who had no other injuries Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

27 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Care Under Fire Top priority is early control of life-threatening external hemorrhage! Exsanguination from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield Hemorrhage from extremity wounds was the cause of death in more than 2500 casualties in Vietnam who had no other injuries What are the options for control in this setting? Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

28 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Hemorrhage Control Dressing Pressure dressing Tourniquet Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

29 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Tourniquets Discouraged in the civilian setting Most reasonable initial choice to stop life-threatening bleeding Direct pressure is hard to maintain during casualty movement The risk-benefit ratio Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

30 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Tourniquets Ischemic damage to an extremity is rare if the tourniquet is left in place less than min Surgical/anesthesia literature states 5 min off every 30 mins after tourniquet has been on for 120 min Risk/Benefit ratio Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

31 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Care Under Fire Return fire Don’t be a hero Find cover for yourself and your casualty Stop any life-threatening external hemorrhage Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

32 Questions?

33 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Tactical Field Care Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

34 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Tactical Field Care Reduced risk/warm zone Cover/Concealment Variable amount of time available Mission Casualty evacuation Field conditions Temperature and weather Darkness Non-sterile environment Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

35 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
External Hemorrhage Stop bleeding Transport casualty to extraction site If tourniquet used earlier Consider loosening then reassessing Try direct pressure to control bleeding May be able to remove tourniquet Expose/Environment Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

36 Airway Management: Conscious Casualty
No attempt at airway intervention if the casualty is conscious and breathing well on his or her own Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

37 Airway Management: Altered Mental Status
Usual cause is hemorrhagic shock or penetrating head trauma Manual correction options Chin lift/jaw thrust maneuver Nasopharyngeal airway Gravity positioning Low-yield for immobilization of cervical spine Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

38 Airway Management: Obstruction
Liquid removal options Gravity Suction Definitive airway options Endotracheal intubation Cricothyroidostomy Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

39 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Breathing Tension Pneumothorax Auscultation Tracheal deviation Percussion JVD Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

40 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Auscultation Seventy-one patients (60%) had a hemothorax, pneumothorax, or hemopneumothorax. Auscultation to detect hemothorax, pneumothorax, or hemopneumothorax had a sensitivity of 58%, a specificity of 98%, and a positive predictive value of 98%. Chen SC. Markmann JF. Kauder DR. Schwab CW. Hemopneumothorax missed by auscultation in penetrating chest injury. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 42(1):86-9, 1997 Jan Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

41 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Auscultation Thirty of 71 patients (42%) were found to have pleural space blood or air missed by auscultation. Auscultation missed hemothorax up to 600 mL, pneumothorax up to 28%, and hemopneumothorax up to 800 mL and 28%. Chen SC. Markmann JF. Kauder DR. Schwab CW. Hemopneumothorax missed by auscultation in penetrating chest injury. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 42(1):86-9, 1997 Jan Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

42 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Auscultation Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

43 Auscultation with Stab Wounds
Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

44 Auscultation with GSW Wounds
Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

45 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Tension Pneumothorax Deceased preload Increased afterload Mechanical pressure on heart Decreased Alveolar surface Pleural space agitation Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

46 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Needle Thoracentesis Casualties with penetrating chest trauma will generally have some degree of hemopneumothorax Additional trauma from needle thoracentesis will not significantly worsen casualties’ conditions if no pneumothorax present Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

47 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Needle Thoracentesis Emergently decompress affected hemithorax with 14-gauge needle inserted over 3rd rib in 2nd inter-costal space at mid-clavicular line Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

48 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Tube Thoracostomy Contraindicated for life-threatening tension pneumothorax Difficult to perform Infection risk higher when inserting tube in non-sterile conditions Prior to Evacuation? Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

49 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Open Pneumothorax Seal defect through which air moving and cover with dressing Allow for pressure release Difficult to do reliably in tactical setting Observe closely for development of tension pneumothorax Asherman valve may be option Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

50 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Supplemental Oxygen Controversial the tactical environment Cylinders of compressed gas heavy and risky for tactical operations Transportation of casualty difficult without vehicle Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

51 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Shock Management Shock is a state of inadequate organ perfusion Diagnosed by noting end-organ dysfunction Altered mental status Poor peripheral perfusion Anxiety Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

52 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Shock Management Therapeutic goals Increase oxygenation of blood Increased trans-alveolar oxygen Increased hemoglobin concentration Increase cardiac output Increased preload Increased stroke volume What can be done in the field? Can only address oxygenation by: Preventing further decreases Airway problems Pneumothorax (open or tension) Cannot improve and can possible worsen hemoglobin concentration Can only address preload by: Preventing further decrease Tension pneumothorax Hemorrhage Increasing Fluids (IV or PO) Positioning? Should not directly augment rate or contractility with medications Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

53 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Intravenous Access IV access Cleaning the skin before venipuncture Saline lock should be used unless casualty requires immediate fluid resuscitation Flushing the lock with 5 mL of normal saline every 2 hours will usually keep it open Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

54 Controlled Hemorrhage: Without Shock
NO immediate fluid resuscitation Save IV fluids for those who really need them No unnecessary tactical delays – do not wait 5 minutes to start an IV in this patient Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

55 Controlled Hemorrhage: With Shock
Administer IV fluids in boluses to correct end-organ dysfunction 0.9% (normal) or 3% saline solutions Lactated Ringer’s solution 6% hetastarch [Hespan®] DO NOT use normal vital signs as endpoints for fluid resuscitation Increased blood pressure Hemoglobin, platelets, and clotting factors Don’t forget maintenance if NPO. LR 250 mL/hr has been recommended. Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

56 Uncontrolled Hemorrhage: With or Without Shock
NO immediate fluid resuscitation Spend time controlling exsanguination External Internal Save IV fluids Permissive hypotension Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

57 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Only in cases of nontraumatic cardiac arrest should CPR be considered prior to Evacuation Electrocution Hypothermia Near-drowning Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

58 Additional Considerations
Minimize further contamination Promote hemostasis Check for additional wounds Exit sites may be remote from entry Some sites are easily overlooked Splint fractures and recheck distal pulses Analgesic medications Antibiotic medications Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

59 Are there questions about the concept of TCCC or the phases?

60 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Evacuation Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

61 CASEVAC versus MEDEVAC
Casualty evacuation from the battlefield MEDEVAC Medical evacuation of casualties Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

62 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
CASEVAC Care Medical personnel may accompany evacuating asset No reliance on field personnel providing care Medical personnel operating in tactical vehicle Additional medical equipment may be available on evacuation platform Variable Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

63 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
CASEVAC Care Primary focus is clearing casualties off the battlefield and not medical care enroute Adaptability is key Maximize your mission within the CASEVAC mission Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

64 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
CASEVAC Care Tactical aircraft/vehicles have restrictions against white light Laryngoscopes Blood identification Wound identification Black out sheets Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

65 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
MEDEVAC Care Medical personnel part of asset Medical personnel operating vehicle designed for them Additional medical equipment available on evacuation platform Oxygen Suction Monitoring Positioning Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

66 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
MEDEVAC Care Difficult to get far-forward No part of assault planning Communications Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

67 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
MEDEVAC Care FLA UH-60Q Combat medic Augmentation CCATT Strategic MEDEVAC Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

68 Questions?

69 Military vs Civilian Tactical Medical Support
Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

70 Military vs. Civilian Tactical Medical Support
Lines are purling Proximity to Tertiary level of care Additional resources Acceptance of casualties Philosophy Offense vs. defense Containment vs. destruction Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02

71 Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Questions ? Tactical Combat Casualty Care 09 SEP 02


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