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III. Clinical Manifestations of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION.

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Presentation on theme: "III. Clinical Manifestations of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION."— Presentation transcript:

1 III. Clinical Manifestations of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION

2 Dengue Clinical Syndromes n Undifferentiated fever n Classic dengue fever n Dengue hemorrhagic fever n Dengue shock syndrome

3 Undifferentiated Fever n May be the most common manifestation of dengue n Prospective study found that 87% of students infected were either asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic n Other prospective studies including all age- groups also demonstrate silent transmission DS Burke, et al. A prospective study of dengue infections in Bangkok. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1988; 38:

4 Clinical Characteristics of Dengue Fever n Fever n Headache n Muscle and joint pain n Nausea/vomiting n Rash n Hemorrhagic manifestations

5 Signs and Symptoms of Encephalitis/Encephalopathy Associated with Acute Dengue Infection n Decreased level of consciousness: lethargy, confusion, coma n Seizures n Nuchal rigidity n Paresis

6 Hemorrhagic Manifestations of Dengue n Skin hemorrhages: petechiae, purpura, ecchymoses n Gingival bleeding n Nasal bleeding n Gastro-intestinal bleeding: hematemesis, melena, hematochezia n Hematuria n Increased menstrual flow

7 Clinical Case Definition for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever n Fever, or recent history of acute fever n Hemorrhagic manifestations n Low platelet count (100,000/mm 3 or less) n Objective evidence of “leaky capillaries:” elevated hematocrit (20% or more over baseline) elevated hematocrit (20% or more over baseline) low albumin low albumin pleural or other effusions pleural or other effusions 4 Necessary Criteria:

8 Clinical Case Definition for Dengue Shock Syndrome n 4 criteria for DHF n Evidence of circulatory failure manifested indirectly by all of the following: Rapid and weak pulse Rapid and weak pulse Narrow pulse pressure ( 20 mm Hg) OR hypotension for age Narrow pulse pressure (  20 mm Hg) OR hypotension for age Cold, clammy skin and altered mental status Cold, clammy skin and altered mental status n Frank shock is direct evidence of circulatory failure

9 Four Grades of DHF n Grade 1 Fever and nonspecific constitutional symptoms Fever and nonspecific constitutional symptoms Positive tourniquet test is only hemorrhagic manifestation Positive tourniquet test is only hemorrhagic manifestation n Grade 2 Grade 1 manifestations + spontaneous bleeding Grade 1 manifestations + spontaneous bleeding n Grade 3 Signs of circulatory failure (rapid/weak pulse, narrow pulse pressure, hypotension, cold/clammy skin) Signs of circulatory failure (rapid/weak pulse, narrow pulse pressure, hypotension, cold/clammy skin) n Grade 4 Profound shock (undetectable pulse and BP) Profound shock (undetectable pulse and BP)

10 Danger Signs in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever n Abdominal pain - intense and sustained n Persistent vomiting n Abrupt change from fever to hypothermia, with sweating and prostration n Restlessness or somnolence Martínez Torres E. Salud Pública Mex 37 (supl):29-44, 1995.

11 Warning Signs for Dengue Shock When Patients Develop DSS: 3 to 6 days after onset of symptoms When Patients Develop DSS: 3 to 6 days after onset of symptoms Initial Warning Signals: Disappearance of fever Drop in platelets Increase in hematocrit Initial Warning Signals: Disappearance of fever Drop in platelets Increase in hematocrit Alarm Signals: Severe abdominal pain Prolonged vomiting Abrupt change from fever to hypothermia Change in level of consciousness (irritability or somnolence) Alarm Signals: Severe abdominal pain Prolonged vomiting Abrupt change from fever to hypothermia Change in level of consciousness (irritability or somnolence) Four Criteria for DHF: Fever Hemorrhagic manifestations Excessive capillary permeability  100,000/mm 3 platelets Four Criteria for DHF: Fever Hemorrhagic manifestations Excessive capillary permeability  100,000/mm 3 platelets

12 Signs and Symptoms in 57 Hospitalized Cases of DHF, Puerto Rico, * Minimum estimate, search was not uniform for all patients ** Only 2 (3.5%) cases had severe hemorrhagic manifestations SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS FREQUENCY* PERCENT Fever57100 % Rash % Hepatomegaly % Effusions 3 5.3% Frank shock 3 5.3% Coma 2 3.5% Any hemorrhage**57100 %

13 Hemorrhagic Signs and Symptoms in 57 Hospitalized Cases of DHF, Puerto Rico, SIGNS & SYMPTOMS FREQUENCY*PERCENT** Microscopic hematuria % Petechiae % Epistaxis % Gingival hemorrhage % Blood in stools % Positive tourniquet test % * Minimum estimate; the search was not uniform for all patients ** Percents were calculated using the number of patients among whom each symptom was sought as the denominator

14 Hemorrhagic Signs and Symptoms in 57 Hospitalized Cases of DHF, Puerto Rico, SIGNS & SYMPTOMS FREQUENCY* PERCENT Blood in vomitus 4 7.0% Bleeding at venipuncture 4 7.0% Hemoptysis 3 5.3% Vaginal hemorrhage 2 3.5% Gross hematuria 2 3.5% Other hemorrhage** 2 3.5% * Minimum estimate; the search was not uniform for all patients ** Only 2 (3.5%) cases had severe hemorrhagic manifestations

15 Clinical Laboratory Analyses in 57 Hospitalized Cases of DHF, Puerto Rico, * Average result in the tested cases Test with Abnormal Result Frequency* Mean Result (Range) Thrombocytopenia Platelet count 57/57 (100%) 45,980 (9 - 99,000) Increased Capillary Permeability Hemoconcentration  /57 (59.6%) 0.26 ( ) Low serum protein 18/51 (35.3%) 6.3 ( ) Low serum albumin 35/52 (67.3%) 3.5 ( )

16 Profile of the Progression of Illness Mean Days from Onset of Symptoms, and Mean Value (± 2 SD) of Selected Clinical Tests DAYS AFTER ONSET Average admission - day 4.5 Average discharge - day 11 Puerto Rico, (N=57 patients) Maximum Hematocrit (%)   Lowest Diastolic (mm Hg)   Platelets per mm 3 99,000 45,980  9,000  Minimum Hematocrit (%) 44  

17 Unusual Presentations of Severe Dengue Fever n Encephalopathy n Hepatic damage n Cardiomyopathy n Severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage


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