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Drugs that affect the Cardiovascular System

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1 Drugs that affect the Cardiovascular System


3 Classification of Ischemic Heart Disease
Chronic coronary artery disease (stable angina) Acute coronary syndromes -Unstable Angina -Myocardial infarction

4 1) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation
Used in the prevention and management of thrombotic and thromboembolic disorders

5 Extrinsic System (thromboplastin)
Intrinsic System =Factor affected by oral anticoagulatants (Vitamin K-dependent clotting factor) XII XIIa =Factor affected by heparin (factor that can be inactivated by antithrombin) XI XIa Extrinsic System (thromboplastin) IX VII IXa VIIa X Xa X PROTHROMBIN THROMBIN FIBRINOGEN FIBRIN (monomer) FIBRIN (polymer) THE COAGULATION CASCADE

6 1) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation (Cont’d)
(i) Anticoagulant drugs Drugs that disrupt the coagulation cascade, & thereby suppress production of fibrin Prevention of thrombosis in veins Heparin Suppresses coagulation by helping antithrombin III inactivate thrombin, factor Xa and other clotting factors Used in: Prevention and treatment of pulmonary embolism, stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) Prevent coagulation in devices in open heart surgery and renal dialysis Treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation Adjunct to thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction

7 1) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation (Cont’d)
Dosage Based on body weights of the patients & their indications Adverse effects Hemorrhage Thrombocytopenia Decrease platelet count Hypersensitivity reactions Since commercial heparin is extracted from animal tissue

8 1) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation (Cont’d)
Warfarin Suppress coagulation by acting as an antagonist of vitamin K 4 clotting factors (VII, IX, X & prothrombin) require vitamin K for their synthesis Indications: Prevention of venous thrombosis & associated pulmonary embolism prevention of thromboembolism in patients with prosthetic heart valves Prevention of thrombosis during atrial fibrillation Reduce risk of recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) & recurrent MI

9 1) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation (Cont’d)
Daily dose usually 3 to 9 mg but it should be based on the INR values. INR targeted values are different in different indications, usually within 2 to 3.5 Adverse effects: Hemorrhage Teratogenic

10 1) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation (Cont’d)
(ii) Antiplatelet drugs Suppress platelet aggregation Indicated for prevention of thrombosis in arteries

11 11) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation (Cont’d)
Clopidogrel (Plavix) Adenosine diphosphate receptor (ADP) antagonist Irreversible blocking of ADP receptors on the platelet surface Prevent ADP-stimulated aggregation Indicated for prevention of stroke, vascular death & MI The combination of aspirin and clopidogrel appears to be the most effective and safest therapy for secondary prevention of stroke.

12 11) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation (Cont’d)
Clopidogrel (Plavix) Dose 75 mg po daily with or without food Adverse effects: Hemorrhage (GI & Intracranial) GI side effects

13 1) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation (Cont’d)
Aspirin Suppress platelet aggregation by causing irreversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase, an enzyme required by platelets to synthesize thromboxane A2 (TXA2)

14 1) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation (Cont’d)
Aspirin Indicated in : Primary prophylaxsis of MI Prevention of reinfarction patients who have experienced an acute MI Prevention of stroke in patients with a history of TIAs Dose Maintenance treatment mg daily po Adverse effects GI hemorrhage & also other hemorrhage Bronchospasm

15 1) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation (Cont’d)
(iii) Thrombolytic drugs Promote lysis of fibrin, thereby cause dissolution of thrombi Streptokinase First bind to plasminogen to form an active complex The streptokinase-plasminogen complex then catalyzes the conversion of other plasminogen molecules into plasmin, an enzyme that digests the fibrin meshwork of clots

16 1) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation (Cont’d)
Alteplase (tPA) Also known as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) Is produced commercially by recombinant DNA technology Human tPA is an enzyme that promotes conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, an enzyme that digests the fibrin matrix of clots Adverse effects: Nausea & vomiting Bleeding

17 1) Drugs that Affect Blood Coagulation (Cont’d)
Nursing Alerts: Monitor signs of hemorrhage Lowering of blood pressure, elevation of heart rate, discoloration of urine or stools, bruises, petechiae, etc. Monitor INR, APTT, PT regularly Warfarin is contraindicated in pregnancy & breast-feeding

18 2) Cardiotonics & other Inotropic Drugs
The cardiotonics are drugs used to increase the efficiency & improve the contraction of the heart muscle, which leads to improved blood flow to all tissues of the body

19 2) Cardiotonics & other Inotropic Drugs (Cont’d)
Digoxin Inhibits the enzyme Na, K-adenosine triphosphatase (Na, K-ATPase), increases the movement of Na out of myocardial cells after contraction As a result, Ca enters the cell in exchange for Na, causing additional Ca to be released from intracellular binding sites With the increase in intracellular concentration of free Ca ions, more Ca is available to activate the contractile proteins, actin & myosin, & increase myocardial contractility

20 2) Cardiotonics & other Inotropic Drugs (Cont’d)
Side effects: Usually associated with excessive dose Digoxin toxicity: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, visual disturbance, confusion & mental disturbance, arrthythmia, heart block Dosage: Maintenance: mcg daily

21 2) Cardiotonics & other Inotropic Drugs (Cont’d)
Milrinone (Primacor) Increase levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in myocardial cells by inhibiting phosphodiesterase (PDE) Relax vascular smooth muscle to produce vasodilation & decrease preload & afterload Used in short term management of acute severe heart failure that is not controlled by digoxin, diuretics & vasodilators

22 2) Cardiotonics & other Inotropic Drugs (Cont’d)
Side effects: Arrhythmias, headache, hypotension Dosage: Maximum dose: 1.13mg/kg daily

23 2) Cardiotonics & other Inotropic Drugs (Cont’d)
Nursing Alerts: Withhold the drug & contact the physician if there are any signs of digoxin toxicity or marked changes in the pulse rate/rhythm Monitor digoxin levels closely: should be smaller than 2 ng/ml Older adults are particularly prone to digoxin toxicity Hypokalemia makes the heart muscle more sensitive to digoxin, thereby increasing the possibility of developing digoxin toxicity

24 3) Antihypertensive Drugs
(i) Diuretics Diuretics are drugs that increase renal excretion of water, sodium & other electrolytes, thereby increasing urine formation & output Used in the management of heart failure, renal & hepatic disease, hypertension, ophthalmic surgery


26 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Thiazide diuretics: Decrease reabsorption of Na, water, Cl & bicarbonate in the distal convoluted tubule Hydrocholorothiazide mg daily or BD po Indapamide (Natrilix) 2.5 mg/1.5mg(S.R.) daily po

27 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Loop Diuretics: Inhibit Na & Cl reabsorption in the ascending loop of Henle Frusemide 20-80 mg daily po Bumetanide (Burinex) 0.5-2 mg daily po

28 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Act directly on the distal tubule to decrease the exchange of Na for K Amiloride : 5-20 mg daily po Triamterene: mg daily in divided dose po Spironolactone Block the Na-retaining effects of aldosterone in the distal tubule mg daily po

29 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Combination Products Thiazide & related diuretics are available in numerous fixed-dose combination with non-diuretic antihypertensive agents & with K-sparing diuretics. This can increase patient compliance & prevent K imbalances: Dyazide (Hydrochlorothiazide 25mg+Triamterene 50mg) Moduretic (Hydrochlorothiazide 50mg+Amiloride 5mg) Hyzaar (Losartan 50mg+Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5mg)

30 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Side effects Nursing actions Rationale Increase urine output Give in the early morning if ordered daily Peak action will occur during waking hours & not interrupt with sleep Keep a bedpan within reach. Assist to the bathroom anyone who is elderly, weak, dizzy, or unsteady in walking Mainly to avoid fall Postural hypotension Assist the patient to get up slowly Avoid falling Possibility of dehydration Record fluid intake & output regularly Avoid fluid volume depletion due to excessive diuresis Hypo/Hyper-kalemia Monitor serum potassium level (within mEq) Avoid K depletion due to thiazide & loop diuretics or avoid K accumulation in patient taking K-sparing diuretics Electrolytes imbalance Monitor K, Na, Cl, Mg & bicarbonate levels Avoid electrolyte imbalance

31 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
(ii) Beta Blockers Block beta-1 receptors in the heart Hence: Reduce heart rate Reduce force of contraction Reduced velocity impulse conduction through the AV node

32 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Used in: Hypertension Angina pectoris Arrhythmias Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure

33 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Differ in: Receptor selectivity Intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (partial agonist activity), e.g. Oxprenolol. Pindolol, acebutolol Lipid solubility (Atenolol, nadolol, Sotalol are the most water-soluble) Duration of action, e.g. Esmolol

34 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Receptors Blocked Maintenence Dosage in Hypertension Atenolol Beta1 50mg daily po Metoprolol mg daily in one to two doses po mg daily po (Slow release) Carvedilol Beta1 and 2 mg bd po Labetolol mg bd po with food Propranolol mg daily po

35 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Receptor Subtype Tissue Effects Alpha 1,2 Vascular smooth Contraction muscle Beta 1 Heart Inc. Heart Rate Inc. Force of Contraction Beta 2 Smooth muscle Relaxation

36 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Adverse Effects Bradycardia Hypotension Brochospasms GI disturbances Heart failure Fatigue Nursing Alert Check blood pressure & pulse frequently, especially when dosage is being increased

37 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
(iii) Calcium Channel Blockers (CCB) Drugs that prevent calcium ions from entering cells. Have the greatest effect on the heart and blood vessels. Widely used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris and cardiac dysrhythmias

38 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Classification Sites of action Dosage Indications Hypertension Angina Arrhythmias Others Dihydropyridine Amlodipine Arterioles 5-10 mg daily po Y Felodipine S.R. mg daily po Nifedipine 10-30 mg tid po 10 mg bd po (Adalat Retard) 30-60 mg daily po (Adalat GITS) Nimodipine 60 mg q4h for 21 days IND Key: Y-Yes; IND-Ischaemic neurological deficits

39 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Classification Sites of action Normal dosage Indications Hypertension Angina Arrhythmias Phenylakylamines Verapamil Arterioles/heart mg daily in 2-3 divided dose, depending on indications Y Benzothiazepines Diltiazem 30 mg tid; 90 mg bd (SR) mg daily (SR)

40 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Side effects: Hypotension, dizziness, weakness, peripheral edema, headache, heart failure, pulmonary edema, nausea, constipation Bradycardia (Verpamil, Diltiazem) Tachycardia (Nifedipdine & other dihydropyridines)

41 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Nursing Alerts: The older may have a greater hypotensive effect after taking CCB’s than younger adults. The nurse must monitor them closely during dosage adjustments Make position changes slowly to minimize hypotensive effects Some patients may experience dizziness and light-headedness, especially during early therapy. The nurse should assist the patient with all ambulatory activities and instructs the patients to ask for help when getting out of bed or ambulating

42 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
(iv) Drug Acting on Renin-Angiotensin System There are 2 families of drugs: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Block the enzyme (ACE) that normally converts angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II Decrease vasoconstriction & decrease aldosterone production, reducing retention of Na and water

43 *A-II is the major stimulator of aldosterone secretion

44 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
(iv) Drug Acting on Renin-Angiotensin System There are 2 families of drugs: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Block the enzyme (ACE) that normally converts angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II Decrease vasoconstriction & decrease aldosterone production, reducing retention of Na and water

45 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Used to treat hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and nephropathy Enalapril 10-40mg/day in 1 or 2 doses Lisinopril 10-40mg once daily Perindopril 2-8mg daily Ramipril mg once daily Side Effects: Can produce serious first-dose hypotension Cough, due to accumulation of bradykinin Hyperkalaemia, due to inhibition of aldosterone release

46 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) Compete with angiotensin II for tissue binding sites & prevent angiotensin II from combining with its receptors in body tissues Used for hypertension, may be used as an alternative to ACE inhibitors in the management of heart failure and diabetic nephropathy. Irbesartan mg once daily Losartan mg once daily Valsartan mg once daily

47 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Side-effects Hypotension Less likely to cause cough and hyperkalaemia than ACE inhibitors

48 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Nursing Alerts Potential Adverse Effects Nursing Actions ACE inhbitors and Angiotensin II receptor antagonists may cause first dose hypotension Instruct the patient to lie down if hypotension develops ACE inhibitors may produce cough Warn patients about the possibility of cough. Consult the doctor if the cough is bothersome to the patient

49 3) Antihypertensive Drugs (Cont’d)
Nursing Alerts (cont’d) Potential Adverse Effects Nursing Actions ACE inhibitors may cause hyperkalaemia Avoid potassium supplements, potassium containing salt substitutes and potassium-sparing diuretics ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are contra-indicated in pregnancy Avoid these dugs in pregnancy

50 4) Antianginal Drugs Organic Nitrates Used to treat or prevent angina
Mechanism: Nitrates are converted to NO in vascular smooth muscle NO activates guanylate cyclase Increase formation of cGMP so that the intracellular calcium levels decrease Vasodilation

51 4) Antianginal Drugs(Cont’d)
Relieves anginal pain by relaxing smooth muscles in the blood vessels (vasodilation) by several mechanisms Dilate veins Dilate coronary arteries Dilate arterioles

52 4) Antianginal Drugs (Cont’d)
Most widely used nitrate is nitroglycerin (Glyceryl trinitrate) Since it is highly lipid soluble, it can be administered by sublingual and transdermal route, as well as oral and intravenous routes

53 4) Antianginal Drugs (Cont’d)
Nitrate preparations and dosage Drug and dosage form Route Dosage Glyceryl Trinitrate Sublingual tablet 500mcg Sublingual 1 tablet under the tongue immediately as required Spray 0.4mg/dose Spray 1-2 doses under tongue Capsule 2.5mg (Retard) Oral 1-2 capsules 2-3 times a day

54 4) Antianginal Drugs (Cont’d)
Drug and dosage form Route Dosage Glyceryl Trinitrate (Cont’d) Transdermal patches 5mg / 10mg Transdermal 1 patch every 24 hours Isosorbide Mononitrate Tablet 20mg Oral 20mg bd to tid / 40mg bd Tablet 60mg (controlled release) 30-120mg in the morning Capsule 50mg (sustained release) 1-2 capsules in the morning

55 4) Antianginal Drugs (Cont’d)
Drug and dosage form Route Dosage Isosorbide Dinitrate Tablet 10mg Oral 30-240mg in divided doses Tablet 40mg (sustained release) 20-40mg every 12 hours Capsule 20mg (sustained release) 1 capsule bd or tid

56 4) Antianginal Drugs (Cont’d)
Tolerance Tolerance to nitrate induced vasodilation can develop rapidly This may be due to depletion of sulfhydryl (S-H) groups in the vascular smooth muscle. These groups are needed to convert nitrate to NO

57 4) Antianginal Drugs (Cont’d)
Adverse Effects Headache Orthostatic hypotension Symptoms include light headedness and dizziness Reflex tachycardia

58 4) Antianginal Drugs (Cont’d)
Nursing Alerts: Potential Adverse Effects Nursing Actions Headache Inform patients that headache will diminish with continued drug use. Can be relieved by mild analgesics Orthostatic hypotension Slowly change from a sitting or lying position to an upright position. Advise the patient to lie or sit down if symptoms of hypotension (eg. dizziness, lightheadedness) occur Tolerance To prevent tolerance, use the minimum effective dose. For long-acting preparations, they should be used on an intermittent schedule to allow at least 8 drug-free hours

59 5) Antiarrhythmic Drugs
Antiarrhythmic drugs are primary used to treat cardiac arrhythmias, which is a disturbance or irregularity in the heart rate, rhythm, or both Antiarrhythmic drugs are divided into 4 classes

60 5) Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Cont’d)
(i) Class I Sodium channel blockers Have a membrance-stablizing or anaesthetic effect on the cell of the myocardium Are subdivided into I-A, I-B, I-C I-A: Quinidine mg tid or qid po Procainamide 25-50 mg/min slow iv injection; max:1g daily

61 5) Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Cont’d)
I-B: Lidocaine mg single bolus injection; followed by 1-4 mg/min infusion I-C: Flecainide 100 mg bd po; max: 400 mg daily Propafenone mg tid po

62 5) Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Cont’d)
Side effects of Class I: Nausea, vomiting Dizziness Visual disturbances Pro-arrhythmic effect Heart block

63 5) Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Cont’d)
(II) Class II Beta Blockers Block sympathetic stimulation of beta receptors in the heart & decrease the heart rate Propranolol 10-40 mg tid or qid po Acebutolol mg daily po in 2 to 3 divided dose Esmolol mcg/kg/min IV infusion

64 5) Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Cont’d)
Side effects of Class II: Nausea Headache Hypotension Dizziness

65 5) Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Cont’d)
(III) Class III Potassium channel blocker Prolong duration of action potential, slow repolarization, and prolong the refractory period in both atria and ventricles Amiodarone 200 mg one to three times daily po Bretylium 5-10 mg/kg IV infusion over min q6-8h

66 5) Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Cont’d)
Sotalol Has combined Class II & Class III effects A beta blocker that also delays repolarization mg po daily in 2 divided dose Side effects of Class III: Proarrhythmias (Amiodarone & Sotalol) Hypotension (Bretylium & Sotalol) Malaise, fatigue & tremor (Amiodarone)

67 5) Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Cont’d)
Class IV: Calcium Channel Blockers (CCB) Block the movement of Ca into conductile & contractile myocardial cells Verapamil & Diltiazem are the only approved CCB in arrhythmias Verapamil mg tid po

68 5) Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Cont’d)
Diltiazem 0.25 mg/kg IV injection over 2 min, second bolus of 0.35 mg/kg if needed; followed by 5-15 mg/hr continuous IV infusion if necessary Side effects of Class IV: Proarrhythmias (Verapamil) Heart block Hypotension, headache, dizziness, constipation

69 5) Antiarrhythmic Drugs (Cont’d)
Nursing Alerts Antiarrhythmic drugs are capable of causing new arrhythmias, as well as an exacerbation of existing arrhythmias Older adults taking antiarrhythmic drugs are at greater risk for adverse reactions such as development of additional arrhythmias or aggravating of existing arrhythmias, hypotension, and congestive heart failure. Careful monitoring is necessary for early identification and management of adverse effects

70 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia
Used in the management of elevated blood lipids, which is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and vascular disorders such as coronary artery disease and strokes

71 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
(i) HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (Statins) Inhibits HMG CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis Increase LDL receptors in hepatocytes This enables hepatocytes to remove more LDLs from the blood Also decrease VLDL levels and increase HDL levels

72 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
Usual Dosage Comments Atorvastatin 10-80mg taken at anytime Take with or without food Fluvastatin 20-40mg daily in the evening, up to 40mg twice daily Pravastatin 10-40mg at night Take with food to reduce dyspepsia Simvastatin 5-80mg at night

73 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
Adverse Effects Headache, GI side effects (e.g. abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting) Hepatoxicity Myopathy

74 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
(ii) Fibric acid derivatives (Fibrates) Increase oxidation of fatty acids in liver and muscle tissue, decrease hepatic production of triglycerides, decrease VLDL cholesterol and increase HDL cholesterol Main indication is hypertriglceridemia (high plasma triglycerides)

75 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
Drug and dosage form Usual Dosage Clofibrate capsule 500mg 2g daily in 2-4 divided doses Fenofibrate Capsule 100mg 3 capsules daily in the course of main meals Capsule (Micronized fenofibrate) 200mg 1 capsule daily

76 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
Drug and dosage form Usual Dosage Gemfibrozil Capsule 300mg 1.2g daily in 2 divided doses Usual range g daily Tablet 600mg

77 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
Adverse Effects Nausea, vomiting and GI upset Cholelithiasis (stones in the gall bladder) and cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder) Myopathy

78 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
(iii) Bile acid sequestrants Bind bile acids in the intestinal lumen. This causes the bile acids to be excreted in faeces and prevents them being re-circulated to the liver Mainly used as an adjunct to Statins to decrease LDL cholesterol levels

79 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
Cholestyramine Usual dosage 12-24g daily in water in one to four divided doses; Max: 36g daily Adverse effects Constipation, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal discomfort Decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins

80 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
(iv) Nicotinic acid Inhibits mobilization of free fatty acids from peripheral tissues, thereby reducing hepatic synthesis of triglycerides and secretion of VLDL, which leads to decreased production of of LDL cholesterol Besides reducing LDL and VLDL levels, also effective in increasing HDL levels

81 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
Normal dose 1-2g three times daily Adverse effects Flushing, itching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea Hepatotoxic Hyperglycaemia and hyperuricaemia

82 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
Nursing alerts: Potential Adverse Effects Nursing Actions Statins Hepatotoxicity Liver function should be monitored during therapy Myopathy Inform patient about the risk of myopathy. Instruct them to notify physician if unexplained muscle pain or tenderness occurs

83 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
Potential Adverse Effects Nursing Actions Fibrates Gallstones Inform patients about symptoms of gallbladder disease (e.g. upper abdominal discomfort, intolerance of fried foods, bloating) and instruct them to notify the physician if these develop Myopathy Warn patient to report any signs of muscle injury, such as tenderness, weakness, or unusual muscle pain Liver Disease Obtain periodic tests of liver function

84 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
Potential Adverse Effects Nursing Actions Bile acid sequestrants Constipation Inform patients that constipation can be minimized by increasing dietary fiber and fluids. A mild laxative may be used if needed. Vitamin deficiency Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may be impaired. Vitamin supplements may be required

85 6) Drugs used for Dyslipidemia (Cont’d)
Potential Adverse Effects Nursing Actions Nicotinic acid Flushing Contact physician if the patient experiences flushing (face, neck, ears) Hepatotoxicity Monitor liver function during treatment Hyperglycaemia Blood glucose should be monitored frequently Hyperuricaemia Exercise caution in patients with gout


87 END

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