Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

HAEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS Dr. Afsar Saeed Shaikh M.B.B.S, M.Phil. Assistant Professor of Chemical Pathology Pathology Department, KEMU, Lahore.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "HAEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS Dr. Afsar Saeed Shaikh M.B.B.S, M.Phil. Assistant Professor of Chemical Pathology Pathology Department, KEMU, Lahore."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 HAEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS Dr. Afsar Saeed Shaikh M.B.B.S, M.Phil. Assistant Professor of Chemical Pathology Pathology Department, KEMU, Lahore.

3 INTRODUCTION Health of Cells & Organs :  Uninterrupted Circulation (O 2 & Nutrients, Wastes)  Normal Fluid & Electrolyte Balance

4 Normal Fluid Homeostasis  Vessel Wall Integrity  Intravascular Pressure  Intravascular Osmolarity (CONTIN…….) INTRODUCTION (contin……)

5 Normal Fluid Homeostasis  Maintenance of blood as fluid  Formation of clot in case of injury INTRODUCTION (contin……)

6 Abnormalities of Haemodynamic System  Primary (e.g. Pathology in discrete blood vessels like Hemorrhage, Thrombosis or Infarction)  Secondary (e.g. Pulmonary Edema, Shock etc.) INTRODUCTION (contin……)

7 EDEMA Definition: “Increased Fluid in the Interstitial Tissue Spaces” Also Includes: Hydrothorax, Hydropericardium Hydroperitonium or Ascites and Anasarca.

8 Pathophysiological Classification  Inflammatory Edema  Non-Inflammatory Edema 1. Increased Hydrostatic Pressure 2. Reduced Plasma Osmotic Pressure 3. Lymphatic Obstruction 4. Sodium Retention

9  Increased Hydrostatic Pressure: 1. Impaired Venous Return: (e.g. CCF, Constrictive Pericarditis, Liver Cirrhosis, Venous Obstruction) 2. Arteriolar dilatation: (e.g. Exposure to Heat, Neurohormonal dysregulation) Pathophysiological Classification (Continued….)

10  Reduced Plasma Osmotic Pressure 1. Protein-Loosing Glomerulopathies (Nephrotic Syndrome) 2. Liver Cirrhosis (Ascites) 3. Malnutrition 4. Protein-Loosing gastroenteropathies Pathophysiological Classification (Continued….)

11  Lymphatic Obstruction 1. Inflammatory 2. Neoplastic 3. Postsurgical 4. Postirradiation Pathophysiological Classification (Continued….)

12 Factors Affecting Fluid Balance Across Capillary Wall

13  Sodium Retention 1. Excessive salt Intake with Renal Insufficiency 2. Increased Tubular Reabsorption of Na + 3. Renal Hypoperfusion 4. Incresed Renin-Angiotension- Aldosterone Secretion Pathophysiological Classification (Continued….)

14 HYPERMIA AND CONGESTION Definitions: “Both indicates a local increased volume of blood in a particular tissue. ”

15 HYPERMIA AND CONGESTION Differences: HYPEREMIACONGESTION 1An active processA passive process 2Increased blood flow (vasodilatation) Impaired blood flow 3During exercise & in inflammation Venous obstruction & cardiac failure 4Oxygenated blood (Redder) Deoxygenated blood (Cyanosed)

16 Normal Vasculature Regarding Blood Volume

17 Hyperemia

18 Congestion

19 Congestion (CPC of Liver; gross)

20 Congestion (CPC of Liver)

21 Hemorrhage Definition: “Extravasation of blood due to vessel rupture” Types: (depending on the site, extent and location) External Internal Hematoma: ‘Blood within the tissue’ (small; like a Bruise, or sufficiently large as to be fatal)

22 Hemorrhage Petechiae:  Minute 1-2 mm  Into skin, mucous membrane, or serosal surfaces  Causes: Locally increased intravascular pressure, low platelet count, defect in platelet function, and deficiency of clotting factors.

23 Petechial hemorrhages of colonic mucosa as a consequence of thrombocytopenia

24 Hemorrhage Purpura:  Slightly larger ≥ 3mm  All causes of Petechiae, plus  Secondary to trauma, vascular inflammation, and increased vascular fragility

25 Hemorrhage Ecchymoses: (Subcutaneous hematoma; Bruises)  Larger > 1-2 cm  Characteristically seen after trauma  Exacerbation of any of the aforementioned conditions

26 Hemorrhage Ecchymoses: (Colours changes in hematoma)  Hemoglobin (Red-blue)  Bilirubin (Blue-green)  Hemosiderin (Gold-brown)

27 Fatal intracerebral hemorrhage

28 Thank You !


Download ppt "HAEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS Dr. Afsar Saeed Shaikh M.B.B.S, M.Phil. Assistant Professor of Chemical Pathology Pathology Department, KEMU, Lahore."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google