6 Hypertensive Retinopathy Grade 2 Arteriovenous nicking in association with hypertension Grade 2(yellow arrow)
7 Hypertensive Retinopathy Grade 3 Flame-shaped hemmorhage in association with severe hypertension Grade 3 (yellow arrow)
8 Hypertensive Retinopathy Grade 4 Papilledema from malignant hypertension. There is blurring of the borders of the optic disk with hemorrhages (yellow arrows) and exudates (white arrow)
9 Current Perspectives of Diabetic Retinopathy A Photo-Essay for Health Professionals- John G. O'Shea MD, Robert B. Harvey FRCSE
10 A Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) Mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathyMicroaneurysmsDot and blot haemorrhagesHard ( intra-retinal ) exudatesModerate-to-severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy The above lesions, usually with exacerbation, plus:Cotton-wool spotsVenous beading and loopsIntra-retinal microvascular abnormalities ( IRMA ) Proliferative diabetic retinopathy Neovascularization of the retina, optic disc or irisFibrous tissue adherent to vitreous face of retinaRetinal detachmentVitreous haemorrhagePre retinal haemorrhage MaculopathyClinically significant macular oedema (CSME )Ischaemic Maculopathy
11 Perifoveal microaneuryisms and haemorrhages Retinal microaneurysms are focal dilatations of retinal capillaries, 10 to 100 microns in diameter, and appear as red dots. They are usually seen at the posterior pole, especially temporal to the fovea. They may apparently disappear whilst new lesions appear at the edge of areas of widening capillary non-perfusion.Microaneurysms are the first ophthalmoscopically detectable change in diabetic retinopathy. Beginning as dilatations in areas in the capillary wall where pericytes are absent, microaneurysms are initially thin-walled. Later, endothelial cells proliferate and lay down layers of basement membrane material around themselves. Fibrin and erythrocytes may accumulate within the aneurysm. Despite multiple layers of basement membrane, they are permeable to water and large molecules, allowing the accumulation of water and lipid in the retina. Since fluorescein passes easily through them, many more microaneurysms are usually seen on fluorescein angiography than are apparent on ophthalmoscopy
12 Cotton Wool SpotsCotton wool spots result from occlusion of retinal pre-capillary arterioles supplying the nerve fibre layer with concomitant swelling of local nerve fibre axons. Also called "soft exudates" or "nerve fibre layer infarctions" they are white, fluffy lesions in the nerve fibre layer.
13 Hard exudates (Intra-retinal lipid exudates) Hard exudates ( Intra-retinal lipid exudates ) are yellow deposits of lipid and protein within the sensory retina. Accumulations of lipids leak from surrounding capillaries and microaneuryisms, they may form a circinate pattern. Hyperlipidaemia may correlate with the development of hard exudates.
14 Bacterial Endocarditis: Roth Spots Roth spot. The yellow arrow indicates a hemmorhage with a white central spot typical of subacute bacterial endocarditis
15 Pseudoxanthoma elasticum Blue scleraAngioid streaksCoronary artery calcificationSystemic hypertensionIntermittent claudicationArrhythmiasAngioid retinal streaks in association with pseudoxanthoma elasticum. The yellow arrows demarcate a reddish-brown line which radiates from the optic disk. This represents an interruption in the elastic lamella of the choroid.