Presentation on theme: "Birth injury Amy J. Gagnon, M.D. Maternal-Fetal Medicine"— Presentation transcript:
1Birth injury Amy J. Gagnon, M.D. Maternal-Fetal Medicine Colorado Perinatal Care CouncilNovember 18, 2011
2Birth injury: overview CephalohematomaSubgaleal hemorrhageRetinal hemorrhageFacial nerve palsyFractureHypoxic injuryMinor lacerations/bruising – cumulatively are of a minor nature and respond well to therapyRare things: abscess 2/2 FSE, skull fracture
3Operative vaginal delivery 1997 U.S. rate operative vaginal delivery: 9.4%2007 U.S. rate operative vaginal delivery: 4.3%IndicationsProlonged second stage:Nulliparous women: lack of continuing progress for 3 hours with regional anesthesia, or 2 hours without regional anesthesiaMultiparous women: lack of continuing progress for 2 hours with regional anesthesia, or 1 hour without regional anesthesiaSuspicion of immediate or potential fetal compromise.Shortening of the second stage for maternal benefit.Outlet forcepsScalp is visible at the introitus without separating labia.Fetal skull has reached pelvic floor.Sagittal suture is in anteroposterior diameter or right or left occiput anterior or posterior position.Fetal head is at or on perineum.Rotation does not exceed 45º.Low forceps Leading point of fetal skull is at station >= +2 cm and not on the pelvic floor. Rotation is 45º or less (left or right occiput anterior to occiput anterior, or left or right occiput posterior to occiput posterior). Rotation is greater than 45º.Midforceps Station is above +2 cm but head is engaged.High forceps Not included in classification.*our rate could be confounded by higher than nat’l rate of PTD (17% rate PTD at UCH same time period vs. 11.5% nationally)*c/s rate UCH 28% vs. 21% nationally in 1997ACOG Practice Bulletin. Number 18, June 2000.Martin et al. National Center for Health Statistics; 2010.
4Operative vaginal delivery Cochrane review (Issue 2, 1999)Use of vacuum associated with much less maternal traumaVacuum associated with an increase in neonatal retinal hemorrhages and cephalohematomaRetinal hemorrhages: twofold higher risk with vacuum versus forceps; data on the long-term consequences of these hemorrhages fails to demonstrate any significant effectSome studies reveal neonates delivered by VAVD more likely to be readmitted with jaundiceVacuum: designed to limit amount of traction (can achieve 50 lbs. pressure)Forceps: unlimited amt of pressureCarmody F, et al. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1986;65:
5Vacuum versus Forceps Vacuum Forceps Easier to apply?? More difficult to apply?Slower deliveryFaster deliveryIncrease risk scalp trauma/intracranial traumaIncreased maternal soft tissue traumaRequires better analgesiaHigher chance failureNot recommend <34-36wksAny gestational ageGei & Pacheco. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am. 2011; 38:Williams. Clin Perinatol. 1995;22:Schaal et al. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod. 2008;37:S231-43Lurie et al. Arch Gynecol Obtet. 2006;274(1):34-6.
6Vacuum versus Forceps Particular indication for procedure Anesthesia Availability of instrumentsTraining/experience of physicianPatient preference
7Vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery Prospective observational study of 134 VAVD.28 infants (21%) with scalp trauma.17 superficial lacerations; none required sutures.6 with large caput succedaneum.12 cephalohematomas.1 infant with subgaleal, subdural, andsubarachnoid hemorrhage. (This infant did notbecome anemic or hypotensive.)Logistic regression analysis showed duration of vacuum application to be the best predictor of scalp injury (duration 0.5 to 26 minutes, with a median length of 3 minutes)UCLA prospectively looked at all neonates del’d by vacuum in 1995 with above resultsThe one infant with intracranial hemorrhage underwent head CT after repeated episodes of apnea/bradycardia; later dx’d with congenital hypothyroidism; the ICH was an “incidental finding”Can ask question: could they have missed intracranial hemorrhages?Multiple studies show ICH rare in term infants without any neuro symptomsDuration of application (time).>10min (6 of 9 with scalp injury)<10min (22 of 121 with scalp injury, p < 0.01).Teng & Sayre. Obstet Gynecol Feb;89(2):281-5
8CephalohematomaBridging vein ruptures between the outer skull table and the periosteum of the parietal boneThe periosteum is circumferentially anchored to the edges of the parietal bone. Usually a self-limited lesion.Rates:Vacuum: 112/1,000Forceps: 63/1,000SVD: 17/1,000
9CephalohematomaSecondary analysis of 322 infants randomized to be delivered by vacuum.Logistic regression identified three factors associated with clinically diagnosed cephalohematoma.Time required for delivery.Increasing asynclitism.Station at applicationNeonates indication for VAVD randomized to either intermittent or continuous technique (no difference found)Station at application (not significant after stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis)Bofill et al., J Repro Med 1997;42:565-9.
10Vacuum time and cephalohematoma Bofill et al., J Repro Med 1997;42:565-9.
11Subgaleal hemorrhageBlood collects in the loose areolar tissue in space between the galea aponeurotica and periosteum.The subgaleal space has potential area of several hundred milliliters (can contain the entire blood volume of the neonate.) Bounded laterally by the zygomatic arches, anteriorly by the orbital ridges, and posteriorly by the nape of the neck.Severe hemorrhage can lead to profound hypovolemia, hypoxia, DIC, end-organ damage and death
12Subgaleal hemorrhage Incidence: 4/10,000 SVD26-45/1,000 VAVD** Occurs almost exclusivelywith the vacuum device.Led to FDA issuing a “public health advisory” regarding the use of vacuum-assisted delivery devices in May 1998Cited fivefold increase in rate of deaths and serious morbidity during previous 4 years when compared to previous 11 years
13FDA Public health advisory regarding vacuum-assisted delivery devices Persons should be versed in their use and aware of indications, contraindications, precautions as supported in accepted literature & current device labelingApply steady traction in line of birth canal. No rocking or applying torque.Notify pediatriciansEducate neonatal care staff re: complications of VAVDReport reactions associated with use to FDADevice labeling: don’t use before 36 weeksACOG: can use down to 34 wks if indicated
14Forceps-assisted delivery Nationally, decrease in experienced teachers/trainingFacial nerve palsy:5-year period at Brigham and Women's Hospital81 cases of acquired facial-nerve palsy (44,292 deliveries) incidence of 1.8 per 100074 of the 81 (91 percent) associated with forceps deliveryFAVD, birth weight >3500gm, andprimiparity all significant risk factors foracquired facial palsyRecovery complete for 59 patients (89%)and incomplete for the remaining 7(mean follow-up 34 months)FAVD more risky for mom and talking about birth injury hereRetrospective study of neonates with facial weakness or paralysis over a 5 year periodf/u by interview with family memberEtiology either 2/2 physiologic pressure (sacral promontory/fetal shoulder) or due to forceps WHERE PRESSURE?Falco NA and Eriksson E. Plast Reconstr Surg Jan;85(1):1-4
15Sequential use of vacuum & forceps Sequential use increases liklihood of adverse outcomes more than the sum of the relative risks of each individual instrumentX↔
16Operative vaginal delivery: Long term sequalae? 1993 Kaiser (Oakland): 1,192 FAVD vs. 1,499 SVD – no difference in IQ at 5 years10-year matched follow-up evaluation of 295 children delivered by VAVD vs. 302 controls (SVD) revealed no differences between the two groups in terms of scholastic performance, speech, ability of self-care, or neurologic abnormality** Does not appear to be any long-term effect of operative vaginal delivery on cognitive developmentWesley BD, et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;169:Ngan HY, et al. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1990;30:
17“Failure”“In cases of operative vaginal delivery, a true failure is not when a vaginal delivery is not accomplished but when a preventable injury is inflicted”Lowe B. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1987;94:60-6.
18Shoulder dystocia Incidence 0.3 – 2% of deliveries Lack of uniform definitionACOG: additional obstetric maneuvers following failure of gentle downward traction on the fetal head to effect delivery of the shouldersprolonged head-to-body delivery time (eg, more than 60 seconds)Risk factorsmacrosomia and fetal anthropometric variationsmaternal diabetes and obesityoperative vaginal deliveryprecipitous delivery and prolonged second stage of laborhistory of shoulder dystocia or macrosomic fetuspostterm pregnancyadvanced maternal ageACOG practice bulletin 2002
19Brachial plexus injury C4: phrenic nerve palsyC5-C6 +/-C7: Erb’s or Erb-Duchenne palsy (80% of brachial plexus injuries)C8-T1: Klumpke’s palsyC5-T1: Complete brachial plexus injury, or Erb-Klumpke palsy
20Erb-Duchenne palsy (C5-C6 +/- C7) Classic posture result of paralysis/weakness in shoulder muscles, elbow flexors, & forearm supinators.Affected arm hangs & is internally rotated, extended, and pronatedOftentimes, C7 also involved causing loss of innervation to the forearm, wrist, and finger extensors.The loss of extension causes thewrist to flex and the fingers to curlup in the ‘‘waiter’s tip’’ position.
21Erb-Duchenne palsy (C5-C6 +/- C7) Obstetrical literature:<10% permanentPersistent injury more common with BW > 4500 g and infants of diabetic mothersPediatric/orthopedic literature:permanent injury in up to 15% to 25% of cases
22Klumpke’s palsy: C8-T1Weakness of triceps, forearm pronators, & wrist flexors leading to a ‘‘clawlike’’ paralyzed hand with good elbow and shoulder function.Upper-arm function differentiates Klumpke’s palsy from Erb’s palsy.Only 40% of Klumpke’s palsies resolve by 1 year of lifeAssociated Horner’s syndrome with sensory deficits on the affected side, contraction of the pupil, and ptosis of the eyelid is caused by cervical sympathetic nerve injury.
23Brachial plexus injury: ? Birth injury 34%–47% brachial plexus injuries not associated with SD4% occur after cesarean birthOther causes of injury:normal forces of labor and delivery (symphysis against the brachial plexus)abnormal intrauterine pressures arising from uterine anomalies (anterior lower uterine segment leiomyoma, septum, or a bicornuate uterus)Performance of electromyeolography within 24–48 hours of delivery can help determine the timing of brachial plexus injuryElectromyelographic evidence of muscular denervation normally requires 10 to 14 days to developIts finding in the early neonatal period strongly suggests an insult predating deliveryKoenigsberger MR. Ann Neurol 1980;8:228.Mancias P, et al. Muscle Nerve 1994;17:1237–8.Peterson GW, et al. Muscle Nerve 1995;18:1031.
24Brachial plexus injury No matter the cause, care should involve a multidisciplinary approach including pediatrics, pediatric neurology, physical therapy, and possible referral to a brachial pleuxus injury center.
25Fracture Majority involve clavicle Often occurs in the absence of shoulder dystociaIncidence at the time of SD ranges from 3-9.5%Increasing risk with greater birth weightHumerus most common long bone fractureAlmost invariably heal with simple supportive therapy & do not lead to permanent disabilityFractured clavicles are found in up to 2.9% of term infants, more frequently on the right side. They are often silent but may be noticed later when a palpable callous forms at a few weeks of age. There is often minimal pain apparent, but if the infant is uncomfortable strapping may be all that is required for a few days.The radiograph to the right shows a linear lucency at the lateral one third of the clavicle.Midshaft (diaphyseal) humeral fractures are often diagnosed at birth when a "crack" or "snap" is heard or felt on delivery of the baby. Clinical signs are variable - the baby may be asymptomatic, may be in pain, or may present with a pseudoparalysis. Treatment is by immobilisation of the arm by the side with the elbow held at 90°. These fractures usually heal very well over the following weeks.The images to the left demonstrate a humeral fracture which was suspected at delivery after a difficult extraction. The top image shows the fracture immediately after birth; the second image shows the fracture three weeks later, with good callous formation. The third image shows the fracture 2 months after the initial injury with minimal angulation.
26Hypoxic injury Essential criteria (must meet all four) Evidence of a metabolic acidosis in fetal umbilical cord arterial blood obtained at delivery (pH <7 and base deficit =12 mmol/L)Early onset of severe or moderate neonatal encephalopathy in infants born at 34 or more weeks of gestationCerebral palsy of the spastic quadriplegic or dyskinetic typeExclusion of other identifiable etiologies such as trauma, coagulation disorders, infectious conditions, or genetic disordersACOG & American Academy of Pediatrics
27Hypoxic injuryCriteria that collectively suggest an intrapartum timing (within close proximity to labor and delivery, eg, 0-48 hours) but are nonspecific to asphyxial insultsA sentinel (signal) hypoxic event occurring immediately before or during laborA sudden and sustained fetal bradycardia or the absence of fetal heart rate variability in the presence of persistent late, or variable decelerations, usually after a hypoxic sentinel event when the pattern was previously normalApgar scores of 0-3 beyond 5 minutesOnset of multisystem involvement within 72 hours of birthEarly imaging study showing evidence of acute nonfocal cerebral abnormalityPersistent late decelerations with absent beat-to-beat variability
28Teamwork! >60% obstetric medical negligence claims relate to events alleged to occur during L&D>80% damages awardedSoon after delivery, discussion with the patient and family (complete, immediate, accurate information)Events of the delivery must be documented by all careteam members involvedCommunicate!***If a any sort of injury is present, the clinician should NOT speculate regarding the cause
29Additional References Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, et al. Final data for National vital statistics reports, vol 58. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics; 2010.ACOG. Professional liability and risk management: an essential guide for obstetrician-gynecologistsGabbe, 5th edition.Gottlieb, AG & Galan HL. Shoulder dystocia: An update. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am. 34 (2007) 501–531