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NURS 2410 Unit 3 Nancy Pares, RN, MSN Metro Community College.

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Presentation on theme: "NURS 2410 Unit 3 Nancy Pares, RN, MSN Metro Community College."— Presentation transcript:

1 NURS 2410 Unit 3 Nancy Pares, RN, MSN Metro Community College

2 Assessment of Postpartum Hemorrhage Fundal height and tone Vaginal bleeding Signs of hypovolemic shock Development of coagulation problems Signs of anemia

3 Cesarean delivery Unusually large episiotomy Operative delivery Precipitous labor Atypically attached placenta Fetal demise Previous uterine surgery Risk Factors for Postpartum Hemorrhage

4 Causes of Postpartum Hemorrhage Uterine atony Lacerations of the genital tract Episiotomy Retained placental fragments Vulvar, vaginal, or subperitoneal hematomas

5 Causes of Postpartum Hemorrhage (continued) Uterine inversion Uterine rupture Problems of placental implantation Coagulation disorders

6 Nursing Interventions Uterine massage if a soft, boggy uterus is detected Encourage frequent voiding or catheterize the woman Vascular access Assess abnormalities in hematocrit levels Assess urinary output Encourage rest and take safety precautions

7 Nursing Diagnoses: Postpartum Hemorrhage Health-seeking Behaviors related to lack of information about signs of delayed postpartal hemorrhage Fluid Volume Deficit related to blood loss secondary to uterine atony, lacerations, hematomas, coagulation disorders, or retained placental fragments

8 Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage Adequate prenatal care Good nutrition Avoidance of traumatic procedures Risk assessment Early recognition and management of complications

9 Postpartal Hemorrhage

10 Self-Care Measures: Postpartum Hemorrhage Fundal massage, assessment of fundal height and consistency Inspection of the episiotomy and lacerations if present Report: – Excessive or bright red bleeding, abnormal clots – Boggy fundus that does not respond to massage – Leukorrhea, high temperature, or any unusual pelvic or rectal discomfort or backache

11 Community Based Care: Postpartum Hemorrhage Clear explanations about condition and the woman’s need for recovery Rise slowly to minimize orthostatic hypotension Woman should be seated while holding the newborn Encourage to eat foods high in iron Continue to observe for signs of hemorrhage or infection

12 Uterine Atony Risk factors – Overdistension of the uterus – Uterine anomaly – Poor uterine tone Assessment findings – Excessive bleeding, boggy fundus

13 Management – Fundal massage – Blood products if loss is excessive – Medications Oxytocin, methergine, carboprost tromethamine (Hemabate) Uterine Atony (continued)

14 Uterine Atony

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16 Risk factors – Mismanagement of third stage – Placental malformations – Abnormal placental implantation Assessment findings – Excessive bleeding, boggy fundus Retained Placental Fragments

17 Management – Manual exploration of the uterus – D&C – Blood products if loss is excessive Retained Placental Fragments (continued)

18 Assessment of Infection: REEDA Scale R: redness E: edema E: ecchymosis D: discharge A: approximation

19 Assessment of Infection (continued) Fever Malaise Abdominal pain Foul-smelling lochia Larger than expected uterus Tachycardia

20 Risk factors – Operative delivery – Precipitous delivery – Extension of the episiotomy – Varices Assessment findings – Excessive bleeding with a firm uterus Lacerations

21 Management – Suture the laceration – Blood products if loss is excessive Lacerations (continued)

22  Infection of the uterine lining  Risk factors ◦ Cesarean section  Assessment findings ◦ Fever, chills ◦ Abdominal tenderness ◦ Foul-smelling lochia  Management ◦ Antibiotics Endometritis

23 Metritis

24 Mastitis

25 Assessment of Mastitis Breast consistency Skin color Surface temperature Nipple condition Presence of pain

26 Mastitis Infection of the breast Risk factors – Damaged nipples – Failure to empty breasts adequately Assessment findings – Fever, chills – Breast pain, swelling, warmth, redness Management – Antibiotics – Complete breast emptying

27 Figure 38–2 Mastitis. Erythema and swelling are present in the upper outer quadrant of the breast. Axillary lymph nodes are often enlarged and tender. The segmental anatomy of the breast accounts for the demarcated, often V-shaped wedge of inflammation.

28 Prevention of Mastitis Proper feeding techniques Supportive bra worn at all times to avoid milk stasis Good handwashing Prompt attention to blocked milk ducts

29 Self-Care Measures: Mastitis Importance of regular, complete emptying of the breasts Good infant positioning and latch-on Principles of supply and demand Importance of taking a full course of antibiotics Report flu-like symptoms

30 Breast Problems

31 Nursing Diagnoses: Mastitis Health-seeking Behaviors related to lack of information about appropriate breastfeeding practices Ineffective Breastfeeding related to pain secondary to development of mastitis

32 Community Based Care: Mastitis Home care nurse may be the first to suspect mastitis Obtain a sample of milk for culture and sensitivity analysis Teach mother how to pump if necessary Assist with feelings about being unable to breastfeed Referral to lactation consultant or La Leche League

33 Assessment of Thrombophlebitis Homan’s sign Pain in the leg, inguinal area, or lower abdomen Edema Temperature change Pain with palpation

34 Figure 38–3 Homans’ sign. With the client’s knee flexed to decrease the risk of embolization, the nurse dorsiflexes the client’s foot. Pain in the foot or leg is a positive Homans’ sign. SOURCE: Photographer, Elena Dorfman

35 Inflammation of the lining of the blood vessel due to clot formation – Can occur in the legs (DVT) or pelvis (SPT) Risk factors – Cesarean section – Prolonged bed rest – Infection Thrombophlebitis

36 Assessment findings – Pain, fever, redness, warmth, tender abdomen/calf Management – Anticoagulants – Antibiotics for septic pelvic thrombophlebitis Thrombophlebitis (continued)

37 Thromboembolic Factors

38 Decreasing Thromboembolic Risk

39 Prevention of Thrombophlebitis Avoid prolonged standing or sitting Avoid crossing her legs Take frequent breaks while taking car trips

40 Self-Care: Thromboembolic Disease Condition and treatment Importance of compliance and safety factors Ways of avoiding circulatory stasis Precautions while taking anticoagulants

41 Nursing Diagnoses: Thromboembolic Disease Pain related to tissue hypoxia and edema secondary to vascular obstruction Risk for Altered Parenting related to decreased maternal-infant interaction secondary to bed rest and intravenous lines Altered Family Processes related to illness of family member Deficient Knowledge related to self-care after discharge on anticoagulant therapy

42 Vitamin K Foods

43 Assessment of Postpartum Psychiatric Disorders Depression scales Anxiety and irritability Poor concentration and forgetfulness Sleeping difficulties Appetite change Fatigue and tearfulness

44 Occurs within 3 to 10 days of delivery Generally transient Usually resolves without treatment Assessment findings – Tearful, fatigue, anxious, poor appetite Postpartum Blues

45 Etiology – Hormonal changes and adjustment to motherhood Longer than two weeks in duration requires medical evaluation Postpartum Blues (continued)

46 Onset slow, usually around the fourth week after delivery Assessment findings – Depressed mood, fatigue, impaired concentration, thoughts of death or suicide Risk factors – History of depression, abuse, low self-esteem Management – Psychotherapy, medications, hospitalization Postpartum Mood Disorder: Depression

47 Generally after the second PP week Assessment findings – Sleep disturbance, agitation, delusions Risk factors – Personal or family history of major psychiatric illness Management – May lead to suicide or infanticide – Hospitalization, medications, psychotherapy Postpartum Psychosis

48 Postnatal Depression

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53 Prevention of Depression

54 Prevention of Postpartum Psychiatric Disorders Help parents understand the lifestyle changes and role demands Provide realistic information Anticipatory guidance Dispel myths about the perfect mother or the perfect newborn Educate about the possibility of postpartum blues Educate about the symptoms of postpartum depression

55 Self-Care: Postpartum Psychiatric Disorders Signs and symptoms of postpartum depression Contact information for any questions or concerns

56 Nursing Diagnoses: Postpartum Psychiatric Disorder Ineffective Individual Coping related to postpartum depression Risk for Altered Parenting related to postpartal mental illness Risk for Violence against self (suicide), newborn, and other children related to depression

57 Assessment of Overdistention of the Bladder Large mass in abdomen Increased vaginal bleeding Boggy fundus Cramping Backache Restlessness

58 Assessment of Cystitis Frequency and urgency Dysuria Nocturia Hematuria Suprapubic pain Slightly elevated temperature

59 Prevention of Infection Good perineal care Hygiene practices to prevent contamination of the perineum Thorough handwashing Sitz baths Adequate fluid intake Diet high in protein and vitamin C

60 Prevention of Bladder Overdistension Frequent monitoring of the bladder Encourage spontaneously voiding Assist the woman to a normal voiding position Provide medication for pain Perineal ice packs

61 Prevention of a UTI Good perineal hygiene Good fluid intake Frequent emptying of the bladder Void before and after intercourse Cotton underwear Increase acidity of the urine

62 Self-Care Measures: UTI Good perineal hygiene Maintain adequate fluid intake Empty bladder when she feels the urge to void or at least every 2-4 hours while awake

63 Nursing Diagnoses: Bladder Distention Risk for Infection related to urinary stasis secondary to overdistention Urinary Retention related to decreased bladder sensitivity and normal postpartal diuresis

64 Nursing Diagnoses: UTI Pain with voiding related to dysuria secondary to infection Health-seeking Behaviors related to need for information about self-care measures to prevent UTI

65 Self-Care Measures: Puerperal Infection Activity and rest Medications Diet Signs and symptoms of complications Importance of completion of antibiotic therapy

66 Community Based Care: Puerperal Infection May need assistance when discharged from the hospital May need a referral for home care services Instruct family on care of the newborn Instruct mother about breast pumping to maintain lactation if she is unable to breastfeed

67 Community Based Care: Thromboembolic Disease Instruct family members on care of mother and newborn Referral for home care if necessary Provide resources for follow-up or questions Teach all families to observe for signs and symptoms

68 Community Based Care: Postpartum Psychiatric Disorders Foster positive adjustments in the new family Assessment of maternal depression Teach families symptoms of depression Give contact information for community resources Make referrals as needed

69 Pelvic Hematoma Assessment findings – Severe perineal pain – Ecchymosis – Visible outline of the hematoma – Blood loss may not be visible

70 Treatment – Surgical drainage – Antibiotics – Analgesics – Blood products if loss is excessive Pelvic Hematoma (continued)

71 Hypotension Tachycardia, weak, thready pulse Decreased pulse pressure Cool, pale, clammy skin Cyanosis Oliguria, anuria Thirst Hypothermia Behavioral changes (lethargy, confusion, anxiety) Pg 664- table Signs and Symptoms of Shock

72 Monitor vital signs frequently Large-bore IV for fluids, blood products Administer oxygen, assess oxygen saturation Assess hourly urine output Assess level of consciousness Nursing Implications: Shock

73 Administer and monitor fluids, blood products Draw/monitor laboratory results Assess quantity and quality of bleeding Provide emotional support to patient/family Nursing Implications: Shock (continued)

74 Risk factors – Urinary catheterization – Long labor, operative delivery Assessment findings – Dysuria, frequency, urgency – Fever – Suprapubic pain Management – Antibiotics Urinary Tract Infection

75 Nursing Diagnoses: Puerperal Infection Risk for Injury related to the spread of infection Pain related to the presence of infection Deficient Knowledge related to lack of information about condition and its treatment Risk for Altered Parenting related to delayed parent-infant attachment secondary to woman’s pain and other symptoms of infection

76 Components of grief work – Accepting the painful emotions involved – Reviewing the experiences and events – Testing new patterns of interaction and role relationships Reproductive Loss

77 Four stages of grief – Shock and numbness – Searching and yearning – Disorientation – Reorganization Symptoms of normal grief Reproductive Loss (continued)

78 Examples of Reproductive Loss Inability to conceive Spontaneous abortion Preterm delivery Congenital anomalies Fetal demise Neonatal death Relinquishment SIDS

79 Fever > 100.5 Severe pain, redness,swelling at incision site Passing of large clots Increased bleeding Burning on urination Insomnia Impaired concentration Feeling inadequate Warning signs of illness PP


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