Presentation on theme: "John FreedmanJohn W SempleAlan H Lazarus Valery LeytinHeyu Ni Margaret L RandVictor S Blanchette HSCCBSSMH."— Presentation transcript:
John FreedmanJohn W SempleAlan H Lazarus Valery LeytinHeyu Ni Margaret L RandVictor S Blanchette HSCCBSSMH
ITP Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura Immune thrombocytopenic purpura From Hippocrates to Bussel (and a few side-trips in between) immune thrombocytopeni a purpura
Greco-Roman: Hippocrates, Galen – life based on four elements: Fire, air, earth, water Blood was one of the four ‘humors’ (air): made in liver, sloshed around through heart where mixed with air Brew of willow tree leaves (salicylates) as analgesic and antipyretic Spleen: source of black bile; “organ full of mystery” Hippocrates 460-377 BCE Galen CE 129-circa 210 [Juliana Anicia Ms, CE 487] Red “eminences”/spots associated with pestilential fevers (plague).
Amatus Lusitanus (Jo n o Rodrigues de Castelo Branco) [1511-1568] Physician, researcher in anatomy, internal medicine, dermatology, mental illness. Peripatetic Converso who fled from Salamanca to Portugal, Ferrara, Ancona, Dubrovnik, Salonika, but was nonetheless physician to several monasteries and to Pope Julius III. Between 1541 and 1561 wrote seven centuriae: each 100 case histories, their treatment, results and pathology, accompanied by learned explanations.
The Englishman, William Hewson (1739-1774) was probably the first to observe some platelets.
Joseph Lister, Lord 1827-1912 Founder of aseptic surgery Joseph Jackson Lister 1786-1869 Wine merchant 1828
1842 + Foucault = daguerrotype Alfred Donne (1801-1878) Child care; breastfeeding
1840s to 1860s: Gulliver, Addison: independently made what are probably the first drawings of platelets Zimmerman: ‘elementary bodies’ which came from lymphatics and were precursors of red blood cells; (Hematoblasts) Jones, Beale, Simon, Schultze: platelets were fibrin clots (? derived from leukocytes) Schmidt in Estonia: ? A cell between erythrocyte and leukocyte Addison 1842
Despite the work’s title (“…et sur son importance dans la trombose et dans la coagulation”), Bizzozero did not focus on the hemostatic or hemorrhagic role of platelets, and appears not to have recognized platelets as a factor in purpura. rbc platelets Georges Hayem (1841-1935): A founder of haematology. Small elements in blood; tendency to clump and to change shape;in 1883, coined term platelet. Hôpital Tenon; St Antoine: several anemias, digestion, stomach, rbc counting, cholera
In 1884, Krauss related purpura hemorrhagica to a decrease in circulating platelets 1887
1916MinotFailure of transfusion in ITP 1916MinotPlatelet destruction due to “some reaction” 1916KaznelsonSpleen site of platelet destruction? (Prague)Splenectomy in ITP Other treatments at this time included irradiation by mercury vapor lamps, snake venom, splenic irradiation.
1938Troland & Lee ‘Thrombocytopen’ from ITP splenic extracts Platelet count
1940WisemanClinical diagnostic criteria for ITP 1946CurtisFailure of splenectomy due to accessory spleen Damashek & Miller, however, continued to argue that ITP was due to a fundamental abnormality of the spleen which ‘exerts an unusual effect on the production of platelets from the megakaryocytes in the marrow’
Harrington et al, J Lab Clin Med 38:1, 1951 1951 plasma Passive transfer of ITP with ITP plasma Carl V Moore
1951EvansPlasma factor = anti-platelet antibody 1951DamashekDistinction of acute versus chronic ITP 1951WintrobeUse of corticosteroids in ITP Maxwell WintrobeWilliam Damashek
1972 --- Sartorius, Am J Ped Hematol Oncol 6:165, 1984 1984: First randomized trial of steroids in ITP
1975Dixon Measurement of PA-IgG 1981Imbach IVIG in ITP 1983Salama Anti-D in ITP 1970s – 1990s Humoral immunity in ITP; antibody specificity New drugs for refractory patients 1990s - Dysregulation of cellular immunity in ITP
Literature on history of platelets Jones HW, Tocantins LM: The history of pupura hemorrhagica. Ann Med Hist 5:349-359, 1933. Robb-Smith AHT: How the platelets were discovered. Br J Haematol 13:618-639, 1967. Blanchette M, Freedman J: The history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Transfus Sci 19:231-236, 1998. Freedman J, Blanchette M: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP): a historical odyssey. Acta Paediatr Suppl 424:3-6, 1998. Mustard JF, Kinlough-Rathbone RL, Packham MA: History of platelets. In: Platelets in thrombotic and nonthrombotic disorders: pathophysiology, pharmacology and therapeutics. Gresele P, Page C, Fuster V, Vermylen J, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002. Imbach P, Kuhne T, Signer E: Historical aspects and present knowledge of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Br J Haematol 119:894-900, 2002. Izaguirre-Avila R: El descubrimiento de las plaquetas. Revista Biomedica Vol 8, 1997.