Presentation on theme: "1 OUR FRIEND BLOOD Some useful information Municipality of Vedano al Lambro Texts and drawings from “L’amico Sangue” (Our friend blood) Published by AVIS."— Presentation transcript:
1 OUR FRIEND BLOOD Some useful information Municipality of Vedano al Lambro Texts and drawings from “L’amico Sangue” (Our friend blood) Published by AVIS ABVS Regione Veneto
2 Blood is a flowing tissue containig : PLASMA, liquid portion (55%); P.S. About 5 litres of blood flow in adults. Where is it produced? - Bone marrow produces red cells, white cells and platelets - The lymphatic gland system produces white cells of the lymphocytes type. Blood ERITROCYTES, red blood cells (45%); LEUCOCYTES, white cells (Granulocytes, Lymphocytes and Monocytes); TROMBOCYTES, the platelets. corpuscular portion Liquid portion Show picture/s
3 It is the liquid portion of the blood (55%), made up of 90% water and 10% mineral salts, albumin, coagulation elements and antibodies. PLASMA …and I have all these things to do!!!
4 These are the cells without a nucleus which contain (red coulored); they represent about 45% of the entire blood stream. Every mm 3 there are 5 milion red blood cells. RED BLOOD CELLS Show picture/s hemoglobin To tissues I give OXIGEN and I withdraw CARBON DIOXIDE. When I’m “old”, I’ll be done away with by the spleen and the liver.
5 WHITE BLOOD CELLS There are cells with a nucleous, responsible for the defence from against infections. There are three types: granulocytes(70%), lymphocytes(25%), monocytes (5%). Every mm 3 of blood contains between 4,000 and 9,000 white blood cells. I can survive for between 12 hours and 14-15 days. Infections agent White cell = Sanitary police White cell enlarged 20.000 times.
6 limphocytes: produced by limphatic tissues, spleen and lymphatic glands, they form antibodies with a memory capacity; White cells or leucocytes They are colourless,with a nucleous, much bigger than red cells (from 6 to 20 micron). They are divided into: granulocytes: 70% of the total; also divided in: - nuetrophils: they attack and destroy bacteria; - basophils: they form antibodies against viruses and bacteria; - eosinophils: they are active against parasites; monocytes: they are about 5% of the total, and they include a great capacity of phagocyting bacteria (up to 100 bacteria for each monocyte). Basophils Neutrophils Eosinophils Limphocytes Monocytes
7 PLATELETS They come from fragments of the cytoplasm of giant cells present in the spinal marrow called megakaryocytes. Every day in the human body about 500 billions of platelets are produced. I’m the smallest corpuscular element. I’m without a nucleous and I measure between 2 and 5 microns. We are about 250,00 in every mm 3. Show picture I live just for few days
8 Platelets or Thrombocytes They are important to help blood clot. The hemostasia is the mechanism available in the human body to prevent hemorrhaging by forming clots. When a vessel is damaged three processes occur in quick succession : the vessel shrinks to limit the flow of blood; a plug of “platelets” is formed; a scab is formed. In very serious cases a clot is formed.
9 Blood is a natural “product”, it cannot be artificially reproduced it is indispensable for life.
10 BLOOD Liquid portion PLASMA Corpuscolar portion CELLS 55%45% Water Mineral salts, Albumin, Antibodies and coagulation factors 90%10% Red cells Erytrocytes, Haematids 5 milion for mm 3 White cells Leucocytes 4000÷9000 for mm 3 Platelets Thrombocytes 250.000 for mm3 GranulocytesLymphocytesMonocytes NeutrophilsEosinophilsBasophils B cellsT cells 70%5%25%
11 How to preserve it Whole blood and red cells concentrates are kept in special refrigerators with a temperature between +2°C and +6°C, for a maximum period of 35/42 days, according to the additive compounds present in the bag. Red cells can be preserved, frozen at –80°C, for months and even for years. Concentrated platelets are preserved at room temperature (+20/22°C) for a maximum of 5/7 days. Concentrate of white cells, preserved at room temperature, must be utilized within 12 hours from the time they were prepared. Plasma is frozen and, if it’s constantly kept at a temperature below – 30°C, can be utilized within a maximum period of 12 months.
12 Human blood is not the same in everyone To avoid, during trasfusion, donor’s red cells coming in to contact with the recipient’s blood, and destroying then, the compatibility between donor’s and recipient’s blood groups must be made. Blood is devided into 4 GROUPS. 42% of population 9% of population 3% of population 46% of population
13 Blood group compatibility scheme UNIVERSA L DONOR UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT
14 The presence or the absence in the red cells of an ANTIGENE determine the subdivision of the blood into: POSITIVE Rh ( Rh+ )NEGATIVE Rh ( Rh- ) Trasfusion between Rh + DONOR and Rh – RECIPIENT may cause in the RECIPIENT serious transfusial reactions. Bag with blood Rh + Recipient with blood Rh - Rh- 15% RH factor
15 Anemia = The destruction of HEMOGLOBIN due to lack of red cell production; or acute or cronic loss of red cells. Leukopenia = White cells tumoural alteration. Platelet disease = it may mainly cause a reduction of coagulation capacity. Blood diseases
16 It’s the trasfer of blood’s single components ( red cells, platelets, plasma), from a donor to a patient who needs them. Trasfusion
17 Our friend blood Text and pictures from: www.avis.it www.funsci.com “L’amico Sangue” published by AVIS ABVS Regione Veneto. Project: Mario Brambilla. Translation: W.A. Gulia – Oxford Group Test correction:Patrizia Lecchi. Tecnical consultation:Manuele Brambilla. Realized for AVIS Vedano al Lambro Via S. Stefano, 71 20057 Vedano al Lambro Tel 0392495748. Cell. 3293887407 E-mail email@example.com@libero.it http://www.avisvedanoallambro.org from:
18 To convey: The function of blood is: Oxygen from lungs to cells; Carbon dioxide to be expelled from the body; Vital substances, i.e. glucose, from to liver to the various tissues; hormones, chemical messenger of the body; water and mineral salts to all parts of the body; To defend us from microbe attacks; To keep body’s temperature constant ; To seal wounds. View under the microscope
19 They live just 120 days. The red cells full of oxygen are bright red cloured (arterial blood). The red cells, once they have given up their oxygen, are dark red coloured (venous blood). 200 milion red cells are destroyed every day by the spleen and then replaced. Before dying they go 172,000 times around the vascular system. They convey oxygen from the lungs and carbon oxide from the tissues to lungs. They are shaped like biconcave, thin round discs, with an average diameter of 7,5 micron. Red cells enlarged 12.000 times. Red cells or Erytrocyites or Haematids
20 It’s a pigment rich in iron which, once fixed to oxygen, gives the red colour to the blood. One liter of blood contains 140 - 160 grams of hemoglobine, able to convey 200 cm 3 of oxygen. If it is conveying oxygen it’s called oxyhemoglobin. If it’s tied to carbon dioxide, it is called carboxyhemoglobin.. Hemoglobin
21 They are formed in the spinal marrow from hemocytoblast. A very large cell, the megakaryoblast, is produced by successive incomplete divisions. Platelets are fragments broken off from that large cell. Platelets Platelet enlarged 20.000 times.
22 They are activated as a first reaction to invasions (infections). They are able to phagocyte foreign organisms. Neutrophils Nuetrophil granulocytes
23 They are active in the inflammatory and allergic symptoms. They reduce thrombosis risks due to the ability of producing and releasing Heparin. Basophilies Basophil granulocyte
24 They are very active against parasites. They are mainly involved in the development of allergic reactions. Eosinophils Eosinophils granulocyte
25 L ymphocytes B: white cells which, once having recognized the enemy, trasform themselves into plasma cells; They are divided into: Lymphocytes T : killer white cells; they organizze the defence from viruses and from tumours. They are produced by the Thimus. Plasma cells White cells producers of antibodies or immunoglobulin. IgA types act on the mucosas. IgM types are the first to intervene during an infection. IgG types are produced after IgM. IgE types are responsible for some allergic symptoms. IgD fight some specific invasions from the outside. Lymphocytes
26 Monocytes Circulating white cells, which eat and digest enemies and debris. Able to move, they are called Macrophages, and are active for just few hours. Monocytes