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Was the discovery of Agriculture a good thing? Was the discovery of Agriculture a good thing? Some would say “YES!” because it allowed us to feed growing.

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Presentation on theme: "Was the discovery of Agriculture a good thing? Was the discovery of Agriculture a good thing? Some would say “YES!” because it allowed us to feed growing."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Was the discovery of Agriculture a good thing? Was the discovery of Agriculture a good thing? Some would say “YES!” because it allowed us to feed growing populations over timeSome would say “YES!” because it allowed us to feed growing populations over time Some would say “NO!” because early agriculturalists had poor health, and it led to the rise of settled societies and problems associated with them.Some would say “NO!” because early agriculturalists had poor health, and it led to the rise of settled societies and problems associated with them.

3 What can you tell from this skeleton? What can you tell from this skeleton? Ilium (pelvis)  male/ femaleIlium (pelvis)  male/ female

4 In addition to the Ilium, compare the male ishium to the female ishium. The distance between ishia in females is larger to allow for childbirth.

5 What can you tell from this skeleton? What can you tell from this skeleton? Tibia  HeightTibia  Height Femur and Fibula  HeightFemur and Fibula  Height

6 Anthropologists can learn a lot about a population from the skeletal remains of its members Anthropologists can learn a lot about a population from the skeletal remains of its members Skeletal analysis can provide insight to how community members lived Skeletal analysis can provide insight to how community members lived Conditions they may have lived underConditions they may have lived under Their state of healthTheir state of health What contributed to their deathsWhat contributed to their deaths

7 The anthropological record of early man clearly shows health declined when populations made the switch from hunting and gathering to agriculture

8 Indian Knoll Indian Knoll Western Kentucky Western Kentucky 445 Skeletons Found 445 Skeletons Found 296 Studied296 Studied BCE BCE Hardin Village Hardin Village Eastern KentuckyEastern Kentucky 1,234 Skeletons found1,234 Skeletons found 285 Studied285 Studied CE CE

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10 Growth arrest lines, also known as Harris lines, show up on X-rays of long bones as traverse lines.

11 Harris lines When something occurs to the point that it halts bone growth for more than ten days, it results in a Harris Line. The lines are evident of a lack of growth period. Note the differences on “Tibia A” and “Tibia B”

12 The Harris Lines found within this tibia scan do not present in consistent intervals. We can determine that events leading to bone growth arrest were long lasting and randomly occurring. The Harris Lines found within this tibia scan do not present in consistent intervals. We can determine that events leading to bone growth arrest were long lasting and randomly occurring.

13 The Harris Lines in Tibia B suggest a reoccurring pattern. Mixing evidence with archaeological data, scientists concluded that food shortages occurred regularly, probably on a yearly basis. The Harris Lines in Tibia B suggest a reoccurring pattern. Mixing evidence with archaeological data, scientists concluded that food shortages occurred regularly, probably on a yearly basis.

14 Enamel hyperplasia is a defect that occurs when dental enamel doesn’t form completely, usually because of malnutrition or disease. Enamel hyperplasia is a defect that occurs when dental enamel doesn’t form completely, usually because of malnutrition or disease. Enamel hyperplasia is identified as a horizontal line, a series of pits or grooves along the outer surface of the tooth. Enamel hyperplasia is identified as a horizontal line, a series of pits or grooves along the outer surface of the tooth.

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17 Osteoporosis is a severe loss of mineral from the bone. The cortex, which contains most of the bone’s minerals, becomes very thin and fractures easily. It seems to be associated with aging and with malnutrition. Osteoporosis is a severe loss of mineral from the bone. The cortex, which contains most of the bone’s minerals, becomes very thin and fractures easily. It seems to be associated with aging and with malnutrition.

18 Porotic changes are spongy holes that appear in the normally dense bone in the top of the skull and the orbits. They are linked to iron-deficiency anemia.

19 The classic sign of iron-deficiency anemia presents as a couple of conditions seen in the skull called porotic hyperostosis.

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22 Summary of Findings 1. Life expectancies for both sexes at all ages were lower at Hardin Village than at Indian Knoll. 1. Life expectancies for both sexes at all ages were lower at Hardin Village than at Indian Knoll. 2. Infant mortality was higher at Hardin Village. 2. Infant mortality was higher at Hardin Village. 3. Iron-deficiency anemia of sufficient duration to cause bone changes was absent at Indian Knoll, but present at Hardin Village, where 50 percent of cases occurred in children under age five. 3. Iron-deficiency anemia of sufficient duration to cause bone changes was absent at Indian Knoll, but present at Hardin Village, where 50 percent of cases occurred in children under age five. 4. Growth arrest episodes at Indian Knoll were periodic and more often of short duration; those at Hardin Village occurred randomly and were more often of long duration. 4. Growth arrest episodes at Indian Knoll were periodic and more often of short duration; those at Hardin Village occurred randomly and were more often of long duration.

23 5. More children suffered infections at Hardin Village than at Indian Knoll. 5. More children suffered infections at Hardin Village than at Indian Knoll. 6. Tooth decay was rampant at Hardin Village and led to early tooth loss; decay was unusual at Indian Knoll and occurred later in life because of severe wear to the teeth. The differences in tooth wear and caries rate are very likely attributable to dietary differences between the two groups. 6. Tooth decay was rampant at Hardin Village and led to early tooth loss; decay was unusual at Indian Knoll and occurred later in life because of severe wear to the teeth. The differences in tooth wear and caries rate are very likely attributable to dietary differences between the two groups. Overall, the agricultural Hardin Villagers were clearly less healthy than the Indian Knollers, who lived by hunting and gathering Summary of Findings

24 Overall, the agricultural Hardin Villagers were clearly less healthy than those who lived in Indian Knolls, who lived by hunting and gathering Overall, the agricultural Hardin Villagers were clearly less healthy than those who lived in Indian Knolls, who lived by hunting and gathering Summary of Findings

25 Who had the upper hand?

26 Hunter gatherers had healthier diets, usually had more resources and weren’t dependent on a harvest. They moved with animals and could take from settled societies if necessary.

27 RECAP Hunter-gatherers had better bones Hunter-gatherers had better bones had no signs of iron-deficiency anemia had no signs of iron-deficiency anemia no signs of infection no signs of infection few (if any) dental cavities few (if any) dental cavities fewer signs of arthritis and were in general larger and more robust than their agriculture-following contemporaries. fewer signs of arthritis and were in general larger and more robust than their agriculture-following contemporaries.

28 The rules of the Paleolithic Diet are simple: Only eat what was available to the early hunter- gatherers. All other foods should be avoided. In effect this is the factory specified diet. The rules of the Paleolithic Diet are simple: Only eat what was available to the early hunter- gatherers. All other foods should be avoided. In effect this is the factory specified diet. Do Eat: Meats and Fish, Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts, and Berries.Do Eat: Meats and Fish, Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts, and Berries. Do Not Eat: Grains, Beans, Potatoes, Dairy, Sugar.Do Not Eat: Grains, Beans, Potatoes, Dairy, Sugar.

29 People are copycats. People are copycats. Ideas were brought from place to place by trade, nomads, cultural diffusion among hunters/gatherers. Ideas were brought from place to place by trade, nomads, cultural diffusion among hunters/gatherers.

30 Advanced Cities Advanced Cities Specialized Workers Specialized Workers Complex Institutions Complex Institutions Record Keeping Record Keeping Improved Technology Improved Technology

31 The city-state of Ur in Sumer The city-state of Ur in Sumer

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33 Farmers, merchants, and traders brought goods to city Farmers, merchants, and traders brought goods to city Ur included a large bazaar which operated under the barter system Ur included a large bazaar which operated under the barter system Location on the Euphrates River allowed it to be trade center for the entire region Location on the Euphrates River allowed it to be trade center for the entire region

34 Settled societies included workers with developed skills in a variety of different areas Settled societies included workers with developed skills in a variety of different areas Having enough food allowed this to take place Having enough food allowed this to take place Metalworkers and skilled workers that created pottery out of clay Metalworkers and skilled workers that created pottery out of clay This greatly helped their economy This greatly helped their economy

35 Needed to maintain law and order as well as social organization Needed to maintain law and order as well as social organization Government and religion Government and religion Ur is famous for its temples, or “ziggurats” where people would make sacrifices to the city’s god Ur is famous for its temples, or “ziggurats” where people would make sacrifices to the city’s god They also had well- defined social classes They also had well- defined social classes

36 People needed to keep records to continue to advance! People needed to keep records to continue to advance! Especially government, religion, and the economy Especially government, religion, and the economy All of Sumer used cuneiform- a system of writing on clay tablets- to keep records All of Sumer used cuneiform- a system of writing on clay tablets- to keep records Also wrote history- used gods to explain events Also wrote history- used gods to explain events

37 Settled societies needed an advantage over nomads! Settled societies needed an advantage over nomads! Ur in Sumer had all of the following: Ur in Sumer had all of the following: Irrigation SystemIrrigation System Pottery WheelPottery Wheel Bronze (3000 BCE)Bronze (3000 BCE) Number systemNumber system WheelWheel SailSail PlowPlow

38 So who had the advantage now?

39 Why??? Hunter-gatherers were simply out- organized and out-bred. Hunter-gatherers were simply out- organized and out-bred. Hunter-gatherers had children, on average, only every 3 to 4 years, while farmers had theirs every 11 months. Hunter-gatherers had children, on average, only every 3 to 4 years, while farmers had theirs every 11 months. Chiefdoms, kingdoms, and states only arose after the advent of farming. Chiefdoms, kingdoms, and states only arose after the advent of farming.

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41 nmfs.noaa.g ov/aquacult ure/

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