Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

NOTE: These slides are for use in educational oral presentations only

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "NOTE: These slides are for use in educational oral presentations only"— Presentation transcript:

1 TRANSCRANIAL DOPPLER ULTRASONOGRAPHY (TCD) FOR ASSESSMENT OF STROKE RISK IN SICKLE CELL DISEASE
NOTE: These slides are for use in educational oral presentations only. If any published figures/tables from these slides are to be used for another purpose (e.g. in printed materials), it is the individual’s responsibility to apply for the relevant permission. Specific local use requires local approval.

2 Outline Sickle cell disease (SCD) Transcranial Doppler (TCD)
TCD in SCD TCD Equipment Guidelines for TCD in SCD Summary LIC = liver iron concentration; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; SF = serum ferritin; SIR = signal intensity ratio; SQUID = superconducting quantum interface device.

3 Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

4 What is SCD? An inherited disorder affecting haemoglobin (Hb) synthesis Sickle cell erythrocytes have a mutant form of Hb and HbS resulting from Glu→Val mutation in 6th codon of β-globin chain HbS turns normally pliable erythrocytes into rigid, sickle-shaped cells The irregular erythrocyte morphology leads to episodes of vascular occlusion and acute pain progressive organ damage Children have increased risk of infection and stroke Life expectancy may be shortened Sickle cell disease (SCD) comprises a group of inherited disorders affecting hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis and is characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia.1 A single point sickle mutation in the gene encoding the β-globin chain of hemoglobin leads to an amino acid substitution, resulting in the formation of sickle hemoglobin: HbS (α2βs2).1 Erythrocytes with HbS have irregular morphology. Under low oxygen conditions these polymerize and have a tendency to become distorted and lose their elasticity, making them less able to pass through narrow capillaries. This leads to vascular occlusion and associated symptoms – severe pain and progressive organ damage.1 SCD is inherited in an autologous recessive manner: Homozygous individuals (2 mutant β-globin chains) have full disease phenotype. Heterozygous individuals (1 mutant β-globin chain) are normally asymptomatic but may exhibit symptoms under some conditions (eg at low oxygen levels such as high altitudes, or when severely dehydrated).2 Signs and symptoms of SCD usually present around 6–12 months after birth and life expectancy may be reduced.1 References Schnog JB et al. Neth J Med 2004;62:364–374. Sickle Cell Anemia and Genetics: Background Information. From Genetics: Classroom activities and instructional material.http://chroma.gs.washington. edu/outreach/genetics/sickle/sickle-back.html. Image from: www2.med.umich.edu/prmc/media/newsroom/downloadImages. cfm?ID=656. HbS = sickle cell haemoglobin. Schnog JB, et al. Neth J Med. 2004;62: Image from www2.med.umich.edu/prmc/media/newsroom/downloadImages.cfm?ID=656.

5 Clinical manifestations of SCD
Anaemia Red cell survival ~ 17 days (120 days in healthy people)1 Pain Acute and chronic1 Central nervous system Overt stroke, silent stroke, and neurocognitive impairment1–3 Pulmonary Recurrent acute chest syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic sickle lung disease1,2 Skin Chronic ulcers, typically around the ankles1 Joints Osteonecrosis (avascular necrosis) of femoral and humeral heads1,2 Eyes Retinal ischaemia, detachments – “sickle retinopathy”1,2 Kidneys Inability to concentrate urine; proteinuria progressing to nephrotic syndrome; end-stage renal failure4 Cardiovascular Cardiac decompensation and cardiomyopathy1 SCD has a wide range of clinical manifestations, primarily due to red blood cell hemolysis and vascular occlusion. Recurrent episodes of acute pain due to ischemia are a key characteristic of the disease. Brain infarction, which causes overt stroke, particularly affects younger patients and can lead to permanent disability.1,2,3 This is usually a result of the occlusion of certain brain arteries (known as large Circle of Willis).4 The origin of this vasculopathy is unknown in SCD, but it can be predicted by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, as discussed later.4 ‘Silent infarctions’, which result in neurocognitive impairment,1,3 arise due to disease of the brain’s microvasculature.5 It is unclear as to whether this is associated with occlusion of the large arteries; children with silent infarcts have a higher risk of overt stroke, but the independent risk factors for silent and overt stroke differ.6 Older patients are more likely to experience intracranial hemorrhage (due to aneurysmal or moyamoya vessel rupture), which may be fatal.2,3,7 Acute chest syndrome and related chronic sickle lung disease are characterized by dyspnea, pleuritic pain, cough or fever, restrictive and obstructive lung disease and pulmonary hypertension.1 Both vaso-occlusion and severe anemia are thought to contribute to recurrent chronic leg ulceration, particularly on the ankles.1 The hip and shoulder joints are especially prone to infarction. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head may lead to total disability and requirement for a hip prosthesis.1,2 Sickle retinopathy results from vaso-occlusion in the peripheral retina. Several complications associated with retinal ischemia can lead to blindness.1,2 Most patients will have some form of renal impairment as the kidney microenvironment is particularly favorable for HbS polymerization. Patients have a reduced ability to concentrate urine leading to dehydration and progressive proteinuria.1 Due to hemolytic anemia, patients with SCD will often have a hyperdynamic circulation to compensate for reduced oxygen carrying capacity and consequently develop cardiomyopathy.1 References Schnog JB et al. Neth J Med 2004;62:364–374. Claster S & Vichinsky EP. Br Med J 2003;327:1151–1155. Prengler M et al. Ann Neurol 2002;51:543–552. Adams RJ. Arch Neurol 2007;64:1567–1574. Hillery CA and Panepinto JA. Microcirculation 2004;11:195–208. Switzer JA et al. Lancet Neurol 2006;5:501–512. Ohene-Frempong K et al. Blood 1998;91:288–294 1Schnog JB, et al. Neth J Med. 2004;62: Claster S, Vichinsky EP. Br Med J. 2003;327: Prengler M, et al. Ann Neurol. 2002;51: Ataga KI, Orringer EP. Am J Hematol. 2000;63:

6 Prevalence of SCD The frequency of the HbS gene is highest in populations in which malaria is (or was) endemic1,2 Approximately 200,000 new cases of SCD occur in Africa every year1 Recent population migrations have led to an increase in disease frequency in other areas in the USA, SCD affects over 50,000 African-American individuals and occurs in 1 out of 375 newborns3 annually, more than 6,000 conceptions in the Caribbean and Central and South America are affected by SCD2 > 1 out of 2,400 live births (all ethnic groups) are affected in England, where 12,500 individuals live with the disease4 The allele encoding HbS provides a genetic advantage against malaria. Highest frequencies are therefore observed in locations where malaria is, or was, endemic, most notably in Africa but also in parts of the Middle East and the Mediterranean.1,2 Heterozygous individuals have too few sickle cell erythrocytes in the blood stream to cause symptoms, but have enough to provide resistance against the malarial parasite. Hence, this genotype provides a selective advantage in regions where the often fatal cerebral malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) occurs.2 Homozygous HbS individuals show a diseased phenotype and many die in infancy. Approximately 200,000 homozygous HbS babies with SCD are born in Africa each year.1 Migration from tropical regions has increased the frequency of SCD to other parts of the world, including the Americas and Northern Europe.3–5 References Weatherall DJ and Clegg JB. World Health Organization Bulletin 2001;79:704–712. Serjeant GR. Lancet 1997;350:725–730. Modell B and Darlison M. World Health Organization Bulletin 2008;86:480–487. Sickle Cell Disease: screening, diagnosis, management, and counselling in newborns and infants – Clinical practice guideline number 6 AHCPR 1993;Publication Sickle Cell Society. Sickle Cell Society Publication SC4 2005: Image from: Christianson A et al. March of Dimes Global Report on Birth Defects: The Hidden Toll of Dying and Disabled Children (http://www.marchofdimes.com/MOD-Report-PF.pdf). <0.1 1-4.9 5-9.9 1—18.9 ≥19 <0.1 1-4.9 5-9.9 1—18.9 ≥19 Births with a pathological Hb disorder per 1,000 live births 1Weatherall DJ, Clegg JB. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79: Modell B, Darlison M. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86: Sickle cell disease: screening, diagnosis, management, and counseling in newborns and infants – clinical practice guideline number 6 AHCPR 1993;Publication Sickle Cell Society. Sickle Cell Society Publication SC4 2005: Image from Christianson A, et al. March of Dimes Global Report on Birth Defects: the hidden toll of dying and disabled children (www.marchofdimes.com/MOD-Report-PF.pdf). Global distribution of pathological Hb disorders, 1996 (WHO)

7 Management and treatment of SCD
BMT is the only curative treatment for SCD that is currently available1,2 introduces stem cells that express normal Hb availability of suitable matched donors is a major limitation Other current treatments aim at preventing and managing SCD complications HU promotes the production of HbF-expressing RBCs HU treatment reduces the occurrence of painful crises and hospital admissions,3 and may reduce the risk of stroke4,5 Transfusion therapy to increase Hb and decrease sickle cell proportions in the blood is a major therapeutic approach transfusion can reduce the risk of stroke and other SCD complications6,7 The only curative treatment for SCD that is currently available is bone marrow transplantation, introducing stem cells with the capacity to produce normal Hb instead of HbS.1,2 However, the treatment depends on the availability of suitable matched donors, which are in short supply. The remaining therapies in current use seek to prevent and treat the extensive clinical manifestations of SCD. Hydroxyurea (HU) promotes rapid erythrocyte regeneration, increasing the likelihood of erythroblasts expressing HbF (fetal hemoglobin) developing.3 As HbF inhibits HbS polymerization and sickle cell formation3, increased proportions of HbF are associated with reductions in clinical symptoms, including stroke risk, as observed in clinical trials with HU.4–6 Transfusion therapy is currently the major therapeutic approach to managing SCD complications. By reducing the proportion of sickle cells in the blood, transfusion therapy appears to reduce the impact of many SCD symptoms, including stroke.7,8 Transfusion therapy may lead to iron overload, which can result in damage to organs such as the heart and liver. Iron chelation therapy can effectively reduce iron overload in SCD patients.9 References Hoppe CC and Walters MC. Curr Opin Oncol 2001;13:85–90. Walters MC et al. Blood 2000;95:1918–1924. Coleman EC and Inusa B. Clin Paediatr 2007;46:386–391. Charache S et al. N Engl J Med 1995;332:1317–1322. Ware RE et al. J Pediatr 2004;145:346–352. Zimmerman SA et al. Blood 2007;110:1043–1047. Styles LA and Vichinsky E. J Paediatr 1994;125:909–911. Adams RJ et al. N Engl J Med 1998;339:5–11. Vichinsky E et al. Br J Haematol 2007;136:501–508. BMT = bone marrow transplantation; HbF = fetal haemoglobin; HU = hydroxyurea. 1Hoppe CC, Walters MC. Curr Opin Oncol. 2001;13: Walters MC, et al. Blood. 2000;95: Charache S, et al. N Engl J Med. 1995;332: Ware RE, et al. J Pediatr. 2004;145: Zimmerman SA, et al. Blood. 2007;110: Styles LA, Vichinsky E. J Pediatr. 1994;125: Adams RJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:5-11.

8 Transcranial Doppler (TCD)

9 TCD – a non-invasive diagnostic tool
TCD – a safe, non-invasive diagnostic tool1,2 allows indirect real-time evaluation of intracranial cerebral circulation via ultrasonography1,2 Ultrasonic beam bounces off erythrocytes within an artery2—reflected signal is processed to obtain a waveform that allows accurate determination of blood flow velocities1,2 accurate determination of flow direction2 addition of calculated parameters (e.g. PI)2 Blood flow velocities are used to predict stroke risk3 Typical TCD sonographic recording from MCA (velocity scale on left)4 cm/s 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 –20 –40 –60 –80 –100 –120 48 DEPTH 118 MEAN 0.72 PI 163 SYS 6 SAMPLE POWER TCD is a safe, inexpensive, non-invasive diagnostic tool that allows indirect real-time evaluation of intracranial arteries via ultrasonic beam (2 MHz frequency) produced from piezo-electric crystals that have been stimulated electrically.1,2 The ultrasonic beam bounces off erythrocytes within an artery. The reflected signal is received by a transducer and converted to an electric signal. This information is subtracted from the transmitted signal and processed to obtain a waveform that allows:2 Accurate determination of blood flow velocities Accurate determination of flow direction Addition of calculated parameters, such as pulsatility index (PI). PI is a reliable marker of resistance distal to the site being evaluated – usually calculated by the Gosling equation: (peak systolic velocity – end-diastolic velocity)/mean velocity. The calculated blood flow velocities can be used to predict stroke risk.3 References Aaslid R et al. J Neurosurg 1982;57:769–774. Kassab MY et al. J Am Board Fam Med 2007;20:65–71. Adams RJ et al. N Engl J Med 1992;326:605–610. 1Aaslid R, et al. J Neurosurg. 1982;57: Kassab MY, et al. J Am Board Fam Med. 2007;20: Adams RJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 1992;326: McCarville MB, et al. Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183: MCA = middle cerebral artery; PI = pulsatility index.

10 TCD blood flow velocities vary with age
Blood flow velocity in the MCA is low after birth, but rises rapidly during the first few days of life Peak velocities approaching 100 cm/s are observed between the age of 4 and 6 years, after which blood flow velocity declines steadily throughout life 120 100 80 60 40 20 10 30 50 70 Age (years) MCA MV (cm/s) Normal blood flow velocities, as measured by TCD, vary with age. Blood flow in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is low immediately after birth (24 cm/sec) but rapidly rises in the first few days of life. Velocity continues to rise more slowly to a peak approaching 100 cm/sec between the age of 4 and 6 years. Velocity then decreases steadily throughout life to about 40 cm/sec in the seventh decade. This decrease is slower during adulthood compared with late childhood and adolescence. The figure represents the mean MCA velocities from 16 TCD studies of healthy children and adults. The bars represent ± 2 SD above and below the mean. Where possible, data were extracted in age groups of 3–5 years for children and 10 years for adults. Reference Adams RJ et al. Normal Values and Physiological Variables. In: Transcranial Doppler, Newell D and Aaslid R, eds, Raven Press, New York, 1992;41–48. MV = mean velocity. Adams RJ, et al. Normal values and physiological variables. In: Newell D, Aaslid R, editors. Transcranial Doppler. New York: Raven Press;

11 Direction in relation to probe Mean ± SD flow velocity (cm/s)
Accepted guidelines for normal TCD study: blood flow velocities in an adult Artery Window Depth (mm) Direction in relation to probe Mean ± SD flow velocity (cm/s) Middle cerebral Temporal 30–60 Toward 55 ± 12 Anterior cerebral 60–85 Away 50 ± 11 Posterior cerebral 60–70 Bidirectional 40 ± 10 Terminal internal carotid 55–65 39 ± 09 Internal carotid (siphon) Orbital 60–80 45 ± 15 Ophthalmic 40–60 20 ± 10 Vertebral Occipital 38 ± 10 Basilar 80–110 41 ± 10 This table illustrates the accepted guidelines for adult normal blood flow velocities in a TCD study. Reference Kassab MY et al. J Am Board Fam Med 2007;20:65–71. (adapted from Ringelstein EB et al. Ultrasound Med Biol 1990;16:745–761). Kassab MY, et al. J Am Board Fam Med. 2007;20:65-71. Ringelstein EB, et al. Ultrasound Med Biol. 1990;16:

12 TCD acoustic windows – arteries insonated
Examination of an artery by TCD is called “insonation” TCD probe is placed over different “acoustic windows”— specific areas of skull where cranial bone is thin A. Transtemporal window insonates MCA anterior cerebral artery posterior cerebral artery terminal portion of ICA before its bifurcation B. Transorbital window insonates ophthalmic artery ICA at siphon level C. Transforaminal (occipital) window insonates distal vertebral arteries basilar artery D. Submandibular window insonates more distal portions of the extracranial ICA B A C D Examination of an artery by TCD is called ‘insonation’. The TCD probe is placed over different ‘acoustic windows’, which are specific areas of the skull where the cranial bone is thin. The arteries insonated via each of the four windows are listed here. Reference Kassab MY et al. J Am Board Fam Med 2007;20:65–71. ICA = internal carotid artery. Kassab MY, et al. J Am Board Fam Med. 2007;20: Image from products/cmetcd.html. Accessed Nov 2010.

13 TCD In SCD

14 Rationale for TCD in SCD
10 20 30 40 50 60 Approximately 11% of patients with SCD have a stroke by 20 years of age, with a peak incidence in the first decade of life1 Stroke accounts for ~ 10% of all mortality in SCD (Figure)2 Silent infarct identified by MRI is a significant predictor of overt stroke in children3 33–48% Patients (%) 9.8% 7.0% 6.6% Infection Stroke Therapy complications Splenic sequestration Causes of death in SCD2 There is a high risk of stroke in patients with SCD, especially in young children and teenagers.1 In a US study, morphological evidence of the cause of death was studied in 306 autopsies of SCD, which were accrued between 1929 and The most common cause of death for all sickle variants and for all age groups was infection (33–48%). Other causes of death included stroke 9.8%, therapy complications 7.0%, splenic sequestration 6.6%, pulmonary emboli/thrombi 4.9%, renal failure 4.1%, pulmonary hypertension 2.9%, hepatic failure 0.8%, massive hemolysis/red cell aplasia 0.4% and left ventricular failure 0.4%. Death was frequently sudden and unexpected (40.8%) or occurred within 24 hours after presentation (28.4%), and was usually associated with acute events (63.3%). Investigation of 248 patients enrolled in the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease before the age of 6 months showed that silent infarct (identified on MRI) was a significant predictor of subsequent stroke: 5 (8.1%) of 62 patients with silent infarct had strokes compared with 1 (0.5%) of 186 patients without prior infarct; incidence per 100 patient-years of follow-up was increased 14-fold (1.45 vs 0.11 per 100 patient-years, P=0.006).3 References Ohene-Frempong K et al. Blood 1998;91:288–294. Manci EA et al. Br J Haematol 2003;123:359–365. Miller ST et al. J Pediatr 2001;139:385–390. MRI = magnetic resonance imaging. 1Ohene-Frempong K, et al. Blood. 1998;91: Manci EA, et al. Br J Haematol. 2003;123: Miller ST, et al. J Pediatr. 2001;139:

15 Flow velocity as predictor of stroke in SCD
SCD – associated with progressive occlusion of large intracranial arteries1 Arteries most frequently affected1 MCA intracranial ICA Abnormal TAMMV (≥ 200 cm/s) in MCA or ICA is strongly associated with increased stroke risk in children2 indication for blood transfusion3 TAMMV, cm/s Predictive category ≤ 170 Normal 171–199 Borderline ≥ 200 Abnormal Correlation between blood flow velocity and category used to predict stroke risk2,4 SCD is associated with progressive occlusion of the large intracranial arteries.1 The arteries most frequently affected in SCD are the middle cerebral and intracranial internal carotid arteries.1 The table illustrates the association between blood flow velocity and the category used to predict stroke risk, as defined by Adams and colleagues.2 An abnormal time averaged mean maximum velocity is strongly associated with increased stroke risk in children2, and is now accepted as being an indication for blood transfusion.3 References Kassab MY et al. J Am Board Fam Med 2007;20:65–71. Adams RJ et al. Ann Neurol 1997;42:699–704. Adams RJ et al. N Engl J Med 1998;339:5–11. TAMMV = time-averaged mean of the maximum velocity. 1Kassab MY, et al. J Am Board Fam Med. 2007;20: Adams RJ, et al. Ann Neurol. 1997;42: Adams RJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 1998;339: Abboud MR, et al. Blood. 2004;103:

16 Abboud MR, et al. Blood. 2004;103:2822-6.
Correlation between abnormal TCD velocities and stenoses on MRA in children with SCD Study rationale MRA is frequently used to study blood flow in the brains of children with SCD do MRA results correlate with TCD velocities used to predict stroke risk? Children with higher TCD velocities and abnormal MRA findings are at a higher risk of stroke TCD can identify flow abnormalities indicative of stroke risk before MRA lesions become evident Patients with abnormal MRA had significantly higher TCD velocities (p < 0.001) Overall, 100 patients with TCD velocities in the abnormal category underwent MRA examination Overall, 4/13 patients with abnormal MRA had strokes compared with 5/40 patients with normal MRA (p < 0.03) This was a study of 100 children who had abnormal TCD velocities indicating a high risk of stroke. The study aimed to correlate observations using MR angiography, an imaging technique frequently used to detect vascular lesions in the brains of SCD patients, with blood velocities measured by TCD. Patients with abnormal MR angiography results had significantly higher TCD velocities (P<0.001). Patients with abnormal MR angiography results were significantly more likely to have strokes. However, as 5/40 patients with abnormal TCD velocities but normal MR angiography results had strokes, this suggests that TCD may be able to indicate stroke risk before lesions become visible on MR angiography. Reference Abboud MR et al. Blood 2004;103:2822–2826. Abboud MR, et al. Blood. 2004;103:

17 Correlation between TAMMV on TCD and stenoses on MRA in SCD
Study rationale relationship between neuroimaging abnormalities and TCD is unclear in adult patients with SCD imaging abnormalities reported in up to 44% of children with SCD; prevalence in adults unknown Differences: adults vs children frequency of imaging abnormalities in adults—higher than in children TCD velocities in adults with intracranial stenoses—lower than in children Patients with intracranial stenoses on MRA had significantly higher TAMMV than those without (p = 0.01) Overall, 50 adults (> 16 years) with SCD were examined with MRI, MRA, and TCD TAMMV cm/s allowed diagnosis of MCA or ICA intracranial stenoses with 100% sensitivity and 73% specificity This Brazilian study was carried out because, while neuroimaging abnormalities are reported in up to 44% of children with SCD, their prevalence in adults with TCD was unknown, as was their relationship to TCD findings. In 50 adults with SCD, they found a strong correlation between higher TCD velocity and intracranial stenoses on MR angiography. TAMMV cm/s was 100% sensitive in allowing diagnosis of intracranial stenoses in the middle cerebral or internal carotid artery. While adults were found to have a greater frequency of abnormalities detected on MRI/MR angiography compared to those described in children, the TCD velocities in adults with stenoses were lower than those described for children. Reference Silva GS et al. Stroke 2009;40:2408–2412. Silva GS, et al. Stroke. 2009;40:

18 Middle cerebral artery
Consistency of TCD velocities in SCD patients with different ethnic backgrounds Middle cerebral artery A B C 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Mean velocity (cm/s) TCD and TCCS performed in 12 African children with SCD (Group A) 12 age-matched healthy Africans (Group B) 12 age-matched healthy Caucasians (Group C) Results PI and depth values in MCA and BA were similar with TCD and TCCS in all 3 groups TAMMV, PSV, and EDV in MCA and BA were higher in Group A with both TCD and TCCS evaluation similar lower values in African and Caucasian healthy controls Conclusions ethnic background does not seem to influence TCD velocity internationally accepted reference values for blood velocities can be used Patient group This study was performed in Italy in order to verify the feasibility of TCD and transcranial color coded sonography screening, and the applicability of international reference values of blood velocities in a population of African immigrants with HbSS SCD. Both TCD and transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS) were performed in 12 African children with SCD (HbSS; Group A), 12 age-matched healthy Caucasians (Group B), and 12 age-matched healthy Africans (Group C). The results showed that pulsatility index and depth values in the middle cerebral and basilar arteries were similar with TCD and TCCS in all 3 groups. TAMMV, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity in the middle cerebral and basilar arteries were higher in the children with SCD on both TCD and TCCS, while there were similar lower values in the African and Caucasian healthy controls. In conclusion, ethnic background does not appear to influence TCD velocity. Therefore, internationally accepted reference values for blood velocities can be used in different ethnic groups. Reference Colombatti R et al. Ital J Pediatr 2009;35:15. Mean of PSV (●), TAMMV (■), and EDV (▲) on TCD (open) and TCCS (solid) in the 3 groups of patients BA = basilar artery; EDV = end-diastolic velocity; PSV = peak systolic velocity; TCCS = transcranial colour-coded sonography. Colombatti R, et al. Ital J Pediatr. 2009;35:15.

19 TCD, neurological exam, and MRI—association with overall morbidity and mortality in SCD
Increasing morbidity/ mortality Increasing neuropsychological deficits TCD normal; exam normal; MRI normal TCD normal; exam normal; silent infarct TCD high; exam normal; silent infarct TCD high; exam normal; MRI normal Stroke Haemorrhage Neuro exam: normal abnormal This diagram illustrates estimates of morbidity and mortality, and association with neurological test performance and TCD findings, in patients with sickle cell anemia (HbSS). The different clinical subgroups are represented by circles that approximate their relative numbers in a typical HbSS population in care at US institutions. There is a wide spectrum of brain injury, and a wide spectrum of impact of that injury on overall morbidity and mortality in patients with HbSS. The most catastrophic injury is the classical acute stroke. Hemorrhagic stroke is associated with the highest neurologic morbidity and mortality. Reference Platt OS. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2006;54–57. Platt OS. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2006:54-7.

20 TCD testing and transfusion therapy—STOP
Overall, 1,934 children aged 2–16 years with SCD screened with TCD (identical equipment in all cases) Overall, 130 with abnormal TCD (mean flow velocity in MCA or ICA ≥ 200 cm/s) + no earlier history of stroke RANDOMIZED Ongoing transfusions to reduce HbS concentration to < 30% total Hb (n = 63) This landmark stroke prevention trial (STOP) was the first trial designed by Adams to test whether reducing sickled Hb to <30% with blood transfusion would decrease the likelihood of the first stroke by 70%. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter treatment trial in which 1934 children with SCD (sickle cell anemia [HbSS] or sickle β-thalassemia [HbSβ]) were screened with TCD to detect those at highest risk for development of occlusive cerebral vasculopathy. All patients also underwent baseline MRI, neurologic exam, physical exam, CBC, and Hb analysis. Those who were TCD-positive (mean blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery or internal carotid artery ≥200 cm/sec) with no previous history of stroke (130 children) were randomized to receive either transfusion aimed at keeping HbS <30% or standard care. Standard care included penicillin prophylaxis, pneumococcal vaccination, folic acid supplementation, surgery, and treatment of acute illness, including transfusion when needed for transient episodes but excluding the use of HU or anti-sickling agents. Vaccination against hepatitis B was required if appropriate. Reference Adams RJ et al. N Engl J Med 1998;339:5–11. Standard care (n = 67) STOP = Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia. Adams RJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:5-11.

21 TCD testing and transfusion therapy in SCD—STOP findings
Regular transfusions (every 3–4 weeks) reduced stroke risk in children identified by TCD as high risk After a mean follow-up of 19.6 months, there was a 92% reduction in stroke risk in the transfusion group compared with the standard- care group (p < 0.001) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Transfusion (n = 63) Standard care (n = 67) Percentage 92% difference (p < 0.001) 1/63 (1.6%) 11/67 (16.42%) Children with stroke The STOP results showed that children identified as high risk on TCD, and who were given regular transfusion therapy, had a significantly reduced risk of stroke compared with high-risk children randomized to receive only standard care. Reference Adams RJ et al. N Engl J Med 1998;339:5–11. Adams RJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:5-11.

22 TCD findings as stroke predictors in SCD—STOP findings
TCD findings as predictors of stroke baseline results of TCD studies abnormal on the side on which stroke occurred: all cases abnormal on the opposite side: 6 patients TCD and MRI findings were significant predictors of stroke when considered separately (p = and p = 0.038, respectively) only the TCD finding was a significant predictor of stroke when both MRI and TCD studies were considered together (p = 0.08 and p = 0.03, respectively) TCD was found to be a significant predictor of stroke, both as a separate factor and when considered with MRI results. Reference Adams RJ et al. N Engl J Med 1998;339:5–11. Adams RJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:5-11.

23 TCD testing and transfusion therapy in SCD— consequences of STOP findings
STOP trial outcome led to early termination of the study1 widespread implementation of TCD screening and transfusion therapy as the standard of care in paediatric patients at high risk of stroke initiation of the STOP II trial to determine when transfusion can be safely terminated2 The observation that transfusion greatly reduced the risk of a first stroke in these children led to early termination of the study1 and the widespread implementation of transfusion therapy as a standard approach to the management of high-risk pediatric SCD patients. The STOP II trial2 was initiated to try and determine the optimum time to discontinue transfusions in these children. References Adams RJ et al. N Engl J Med 1998;339:5–11. Adams RJ et al. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2769–2778. STOP II = Optimizing Primary Stroke Prevention in Sickle Cell Anemia. 1Adams RJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 1998;339: Adams RJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:

24 TCD testing and transfusion therapy in SCD—STOP II
Prospective, randomized, controlled, multicentre treatment trial Overall, 79 children with SCD aged 2–16 years were at high risk of stroke based on TCD findings and had received transfusions for ≥ 30 months TCD had normalized, and patients had no severe MRA lesions at the start of STOP II Overall, 38 continued chronic transfusion therapy Overall, 41 discontinued chronic transfusion therapy Overall, 14 (34%) reverted to high-risk TCD; 2 developed stroke No neurological event This prospective, randomized trial included 79 high-risk (TCD) children who had received transfusion therapy for ≥30 months, resulting in TCD normalization by the start of the trial. The composite primary end point was stroke or reversion to high risk TCD. Among the 41 children in the transfusion-halted group, high-risk TCD results developed in 14 and stroke in 2 others within a mean (SD) of 4.5  2.6 months (range, 2.1 to 10.1) of the last transfusion. Neither of these events of the composite end point occurred in the 38 children who continued to receive transfusions. The study was stopped after 79 children of a planned enrollment of 100 underwent randomization. Discontinuation of transfusion for the prevention of stroke in children with SCD results in a high rate of reversion to abnormal blood-flow velocities on Doppler studies and stroke. Reference Adams RJ et al. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2769–2778. STOP II trial terminated 2 years early. It is not recommended to stop blood transfusions in patients with SCD at high risk of stroke based on TCD findings Adams RJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:

25 TCD screening in SCD—impact on annualized stroke rate
0.5 Retrospective cohort of all children with SCD within a large managed-care plan Stroke incidence rates were estimated before (pre-TCD) and after (post-TCD) first TCD screening Since STOP, TCD use increased 6-fold Annualized stroke rate decreased from 0.44 to 0.19 per 100 person-years from pre- to post-TCD 0.44 0.4 0.3 Annualized stroke rate per 100 patient-years 0.19 0.2 0.1 The impact of TCD screening in SCD on annualized stroke rate was investigated in a retrospective cohort of all children with SCD within a large managed care plan in the US. Stroke incidence rates were estimated pre-TCD screening (from January 1993 to the end of 1997) and after the first TCD (from January 1998 to the end of 2005). Data from the 157 children in the cohort showed that TCD screening increased 6-fold after the STOP results were published. Importantly, they found that the annualized stroke rate decreased from 0.44 to 0.19 per 100 person-years from pre- to post- TCD screening. Reference Armstrong-Wells J et al. Neurology 2009;72:1316–1321. Pre-TCD Post-TCD Armstrong-Wells J, et al. Neurology. 2009;72:

26 High conversion rate from ‘‘borderline’’ to ‘‘abnormal’’ TCD findings if untreated
Review of TCD examinations in 274 untreated children with SCD (HbSS and HbSβ0-thalassaemia; excluding those receiving HU or transfusions) Overall, 54 patients had borderline TCD velocities (TAMMV 170–199 cm/s) Overall, 18-month cumulative conversion to abnormal TCD (TAMMV ≥ 200 cm/s) = 23% There is also evidence that children with ‘conditional’ TCD findings may become high risk if untreated. This retrospective study of TCD examinations in 274 untreated children with HbSS (excluding those receiving HU or transfusions) showed that nearly a quarter of those with ‘marginal’ TCD findings converted to ‘abnormal’ (ie high risk) within 18 months. The investigators concluded that therapy should be considered in such patients in order to prevent conversion to abnormal TCD velocities.1 Follow-up TCD examinations of children enrolled in the STOP trial suggested that conversion to abnormal velocities was most likely in younger patients with higher baseline TCD velocities2 References Hankins JS et al. Br J Haematol 2008;142:94–99. Adams RJ et al. Blood 2004;103:3689–3694. Conclusion—therapy should be considered for the prevention of conversion to abnormal TCD velocities1 During the STOP trial, such conversion to abnormal velocities most likely occurred in younger patients and in those with higher initial flow velocities2 HbSS = sickle cell anaemia. 1Hankins JS, et al. Br J Haematol. 2008;142: Adams RJ, et al. Blood. 2004;103:

27 TCD and stroke risk in children with HbSC disease—study rationale
Rationale for study most studies of TCD and stroke risk are centred on patients with HbSS HbSC disease—caused by co-inheritance of HbS and HbC clinical features of HbSC and HbSS overlap, but with HbSC cerebrovascular disease and stroke are less common lifetime risk of stroke is 2–3% 50–100 times greater risk than that of general paediatric population value of TCD for stroke prevention in HbSC is unknown Since most studies of TCD and stroke risk have been focussed on patients with sickle cell anemia (HbSS), Deane and colleagues undertook a retrospective audit of patients with HbSC disease, which is caused by co-inheritance of HbS and HbC – the second most common form of SCD after sickle cell anemia (25–30% of cases). While the clinical features of HbSC and HbSS overlap, patients with HbSC have longer preservation of splenic function, an apparently lower risk of infection, a far greater risk of proliferative retinopathy, but a lower risk of cerebrovascular disease and stroke. Nevertheless, their lifetime stroke risk is still up to 100 times greater than that of the general pediatric population. Thus far, the value of TCD for stroke prevention in HBSC was unknown. Reference Deane CR et al. Arch Dis Child 2008;93:138–141. HbC = haemoglobin C; HbS = haemoglobin S; HbSC = haemoglobin SC. Deane CR, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93:

28 TCD and stroke risk in children with HbSC disease—design and results
Retrospective audit of routine TCD scans and clinical data from 46 children (mean age 8.1 years) with HbSC disease Mean TAMMV = 94 cm/s (98th centile of 128 cm/s) Significantly less than published ranges for HbSS 1 child had stroke at age 5 years, when TAMMV = 146 cm/s Conclusions TAMMV > 128 cm/s could indicate the possibility of significant cerebrovascular disease in HbSC No evidence on which to base a programme of primary stroke prevention in HbSC TCD measurement is likely to function as a screen for those requiring further investigation This was a retrospective audit of routinely performed TCD scans and clinical data from 46 children, mean age 8.1 years, with HbSC disease. They found that mean TAMMV was 94 cm/s (98th centile 128 cm/s), which is significantly less than published ranges for HbSS. 1 child had a stroke at age 5, when TAMMV was 146 cm/s. The authors concluded that TAMMV >128 cm/s in HbSC patients could indicate the possibility of significant cerebrovascular disease. However, there is currently no evidence on which to base a program of primary stroke prevention in HbSC. Reference Deane RC et al. Arch Dis Child 2008;93:138–141. Deane RC, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93:

29 TCD Equipment

30 TCD equipment Wide range of TCD equipment is available
from small and portable to large and stationary machines Portable machines can be used at bedside for reliable evaluation of cerebral vasculature There is a wide range of equipment for performing TCD, including portable and larger machines. Portable machines may be particularly convenient for reliable bedside evaluation of the cerebral circulation. Image from: config=ps_prodDtl&prodID=158. Image from Accessed Nov 2010.

31 Transcranial Doppler devices
TCD = non-duplex (non-imaging TCD) TCDI = duplex (imaging TCD) Higher cost1 Buying a dedicated TCD doppler is expensive: app Euro Many hospitals have sonography equipment1 Buying separate imaging transducer for already existing doppler machine costs app Euro Used Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia Study (STOP) trial1 Effectively identifies major intracranial arteries2 Risk of inaccurate velocity is lower than with TCD2 May reveal unexpected vascular findings (e.g. aneurysm, vascular malformation) 1 Important: measurements obtained with TCDI are significantly lower than those obtained with TCD sonography1–4 should be considered when predicting the risk of stroke in children with SCD Since most studies of TCD and stroke risk have been focussed on patients with sickle cell anemia (HbSS), Deane and colleagues undertook a retrospective audit of patients with HbSC disease, which is caused by co-inheritance of HbS and HbC – the second most common form of SCD after sickle cell anemia (25–30% of cases). While the clinical features of HbSC and HbSS overlap, patients with HbSC have longer preservation of splenic function, an apparently lower risk of infection, a far greater risk of proliferative retinopathy, but a lower risk of cerebrovascular disease and stroke. Nevertheless, their lifetime stroke risk is still up to 100 times greater than that of the general pediatric population. Thus far, the value of TCD for stroke prevention in HBSC was unknown. Reference Deane CR et al. Arch Dis Child 2008;93:138–141. 1McCarville MB, et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183: Krejza J, et al. Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28: Jones AM, et al. Pediatr Radiol. 2001;31: Jones A, et al. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35:66-72.

32 Transcranial Doppler devices (cont.)
TCD = non-duplex (non-imaging TCD) TCDI = duplex (imaging TCD) Since most studies of TCD and stroke risk have been focussed on patients with sickle cell anemia (HbSS), Deane and colleagues undertook a retrospective audit of patients with HbSC disease, which is caused by co-inheritance of HbS and HbC – the second most common form of SCD after sickle cell anemia (25–30% of cases). While the clinical features of HbSC and HbSS overlap, patients with HbSC have longer preservation of splenic function, an apparently lower risk of infection, a far greater risk of proliferative retinopathy, but a lower risk of cerebrovascular disease and stroke. Nevertheless, their lifetime stroke risk is still up to 100 times greater than that of the general pediatric population. Thus far, the value of TCD for stroke prevention in HBSC was unknown. Reference Deane CR et al. Arch Dis Child 2008;93:138–141. McCarville MB, et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183:

33 TCD machines and manufacturers
Nicolet Biomedical SONARA, SONARA/tek1 Compumedics Germany GmbH2 analog: Smart-/EZ-Dop®, Multi-Dop® Pro digital: Doppler-Box™, Multi-Dop® Tdigital, Multi-Dop® Xdigital Doppler-Box™ Multi-Dop®Tdigital 1http://www.akumed.no/1862/158_SONARA_Family_Brochure.pdf. Accessed Nov Image from Accessed Nov 2010.

34 TCD machines (non-duplex)
Rimed Ltd.1 Digi-Lite™ Spencer Technologies2 ST3 DIGITAL Digi-LiteTM Rimed’s probe holder ST3 DIGITAL 1Image from Accessed Nov Image from Accessed Nov 2010.

35 TCDI allows artery visualization
Advances in TCD result in the imaging of intracranial arteries Conventional colour orientation for TCDI examinations Blood flow towards the transducer Blood flow away from the transducer Advances in TCD have allowed imaging of intracranial arteries as well as determination of blood flow, shown as the waveform. According to convention, shades of red indicate blood flow towards the transducer, and shades of blue indicate blood flow away from the transducer. It should be noted that the appearance of intracranial arterial blood flow is dependent on many instrument controls – estimations of arterial size are not accurate from the color Doppler display. Reference TCDI = imaging TCD. Image from products/cmetcd.html. Accessed Nov 2010.

36 TCDI versus non-imaging TCD
Study comparing TCDI (with image of artery) with non-imaging TCD (waveform only) Overall, 37 children with SCD and without intracranial arterial narrowing on MRA were studied1 TCDI identified the major intracranial arteries more effectively than did TCD1 Difference between TCDI and TCD velocities similar to that found in previous studies2 and should be considered when used for stroke risk prediction3 Risk of inaccurate velocity sampling is lower with TCDI than with TCD1 TCD TCDI Found arteries (%) 94.9% 99.3% Mean depth of insonation (all arteries) No significant difference Velocities (right and left sides) Significantly lower (~ 20%) with TCDI vs TCD Similar with angle-corrected* TCDI vs TCD *TCDI enables an operator to determine an angle between the course of an artery and the ultrasound beam and to correct measurements for cosine of the angle. In this study, the accuracy of imaging TCD (ie with an image of the artery) was compared with that of non-imaging TCD (ie waveform only, illustrating blood flow velocity). 37 children with SCD and without intracranial narrowing on MR angiography were studied with both techniques, including both angle-corrected and uncorrected TCDI. As illustrated in the table, TCDI identified the major intracranial arteries more effectively than TCD. The risk of inaccurate velocity sampling was also lower with TCDI versus TCD.1 The difference between TCD and TCDI velocities was similar to that observed in a previous study, where velocities were 10–15% lower using TCDI compared with TCD in 29 children with SCD.2 The TCD velocity thresholds used to predict stroke risk may require modification when using TCDI.3 References Krejza J et al. Am J Neuroradiol 2007;28:1613–1618. Jones AM et al. Pediatr Radiol 2001;31:461–469. Jones A et al. Pediatr Radiol 2005;35:66–72. MRA = magnetic resonance angiography 1Krejza J, et al. Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28: Jones AM, et al. Pediatr Radiol. 2001;31: Jones A, et al. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35:66-72.

37 TCDI machines and manufacturers
Acuson Sequoia 512 Vivid E9 Siemens medical1 e.g. Acuson Sequoia 5122 GE Healthcare3 e.g. LOGIQ line e.g. Vivid line Philips Healthcare4 e.g. HD line HD15 LOGIQ 9 1www.medical.siemens.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/StoreCatalogDisplay~q_catalogId~e_-1~a_langId~e_-1~a_storeId~e_10001.htm. Accessed Nov www.sequoiaultrasound.com/pdf/sequoiaultrasound.com/Sequoia_512_Brochure.pdf. Accessed Nov 2010. 3www2.gehealthcare.com/portal/site/usen/gehchome. Accessed Nov www.healthcare.philips.com/main/products/ultrasound/index.wpd. Accessed Nov 2010.

38 Guidelines for TCD in SCD

39 Adams RJ, et al. Ann Neurol. 2003;54:559-63.
STOP strategy for primary stroke prevention: opinions of leading neurologists Adoption of the STOP trial primary prevention strategy could lead to prevention of 100–200 strokes/year more children reaching adulthood with normal arterial vessels reduced prevalence of severe arterial disease and moyamoya syndrome Transfusion in the short term is manageable with a number of beneficial effects beyond stroke prevention Requiring definite evidence of arterial disease (e.g. MRI evidence of stroke) would identify a more specific higher-risk population, but opportunity for those children to reach adulthood with relatively intact neurological function will be lost Full quote from editorial: “If the STOP primary prevention strategy were widely adopted, it is reasonable to argue that 100–200 strokes per year would be prevented, and many more children would reach adulthood with arterial vessels that are normal and less prone to have infarction or hemorrhage later in life.” “The prevalence of severe arterial disease…due to SCD would probably go down with systematic application of the STOP approach which calls for first screening at age 2 years. Transfusion in the short term is manageable and has…beneficial effects beyond stoke prevention.” “Requiring definite evidence of arterial disease or overt clinical or even MRI evidence of stroke would certainly identify a higher risk population, but the opportunity for those children to reach adulthood with relatively intact neurological function will be lost.” Reference Adams RJ et al. Ann Neurol 2003;54:559–563. Adams RJ, et al. Ann Neurol. 2003;54:

40 US and UK guidance for TCD screening in SCD— based on STOP findings
1998 – National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute clinical alert1 2004 – Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology—TCD assessment2 2009 – National Health Service Antenatal and Newborn Screening Programmes3 “Since the greatest risk of stroke occurs in early childhood, it is recommended that children ages 2–16 receive TCD screening” “TCD is of established value in the screening of children aged 2 to 16 years with sickle cell disease for stroke risk (Type A [established as a useful predictive for suspected condition], class I [evidence provided by prospective studies in broad spectrum of persons with suspected condition])” Based primarily on data from the landmark STOP trial,1 US and UK guidelines now recommend regular TCD screening in children with SCD aged 2–16 years.2-4 References Adams RJ et al. N Engl J Med 1998;339:5–11. NIH. Clinical alert from the NHLBI, Sept 18, 1997:http://www.nhlbi. nih.gov/ new/press/nhlb-18a.htm. Sloan MA et al. Neurology 2004;62:1468–1481. NHS. Transcranial Doppler Scanning for Children with Sickle Cell Disease, March 2009: FINDER/ViewResource.aspx?resID= “All children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) and HbSβ zero thalassaemia, should be offered annual TCD scans from age 2 years until at least age 16 years” 1NIH. Clinical alert from the NHLBI Sept Sloan MA, et al. Neurology. 2004;62: NHS. Transcranial Doppler scanning for children with sickle cell disease Mar. FINDER/ViewResource.aspx?resID=

41 Identification and management of stroke risk in children with SCD—NIH guidelines
Child with HbSS, aged > 2 years, with no symptoms Evaluate educational needs based on results Neuropsychological testing TCD unavailable TCD High risk based on other information† Abnormal ( 200 cm/s) Normal (< 200 cm/s) Low risk Protocol treatment or clinical trial Confirm abnormal Repeat TCD every 3–12 months* Observation Or treatment options observation for progression HU transfusion other (e.g. antiplatelet agents) MRI/MRA NIH guidelines recommend that transfusions are continued indefinitely in children with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) aged 2 years or over at high risk of stroke, based on TCD findings when possible. Reference NIH Publication No The Management of Sickle Cell Disease. Revised 2002 (4th edition). NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA, gov/health/prof/blood/sickle/sc_mngt.pdf. Abnormal exam Chronic transfusion *Optimal frequency of re-screening not established; younger children with velocity closer to 200 cm/s should be re-screened more frequently. †Prior transient ischaemic attack, low steady-state Hb, rate and recency of acute chest syndrome, elevated systolic blood pressure Accessed Nov 2010.

42 TCD scanning decision tree: NHS guidelines
Children aged 2–16 Initial TCD scan Inadequate scan/ low velocities Normal < 170 cm/s Borderline 170–199 cm/s Abnormal  200 cm/s If child is uncooperative, consider rescanning when appropriate. If due to a poor scanning window, consider an alternative technique Repeat TCD scan in 1 year. In older children who have already had several normal scans, the time interval might be extended to 2 years Re-scan between 1 and 4 months depending on the age of the child and the blood velocity. Children younger than 10 years and those with higher velocities are considered to be at higher risk and should be scanned earlier Discuss stroke risk and consider chronic transfusion. A re-scan might be considered appropriate depending on the blood velocity and individual clinical circumstances NHS guidelines recommend routine TCD scanning of children with SCD aged 2–16 years. Scan results should be divided into five categories, namely, Inadequate image; Unusual low velocity; Normal velocity – ‘low risk’; Borderline velocity – ‘marginal’; and High velocity – ‘high risk’. Classification should be based on maximal velocity recorded during the scan of the distal intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Specific action taken following categorization of the results should depend on the age of the child, and clinical history should be considered when determining timescales of repeat scans. Due to the long-term implications of chronic transfusion, as recommended for high-risk patients, NHS guidelines suggest that all available data, including a comprehensive neurological assessment and the results of other imaging studies such as MRI/MRA (although these are not used for risk classification), should be considered prior to commencing treatment. Reference NHS. Transcranial Doppler Scanning for Children with Sickle cell disease, March 2009: Resource. aspx?resID= Velocities are non-imaging TCD and TAMMV. Decisions apply to TAMMVs in the distal ICA, bifurcation, and/or MCA only. For bilateral or multifocal TAMMVs > 170 cm/s, choose the highest single value for the decision tree. Recurrent inadequate scans or low velocities may indicate severe stenosis. Consider using other imaging techniques. For any particular child, detailed clinical knowledge and judgement might override this guidance. Accessed Nov 2010.

43 Summary

44 Summary—SCD SCD is an inherited Hb disorder. Symptoms include episodes of acute pain and ischaemic stroke due to vascular occlusion by sickle-shaped erythrocytes BMT is the only curative therapy1,2 Current therapies are aimed at the prevention and treatment of complications treatment with HU has been shown to reduce the occurrence of painful crises3 and to lower TCD velocities in patients with SCD4 Intermittent or chronic transfusion therapy is a major therapeutic approach that is becoming increasingly utilized to reduce the risk of stroke and other SCD clinical manifestations5,6 Bone marrow transplantation, which introduces stem cells that are able to express normal Hb, is currently the only curative therapy for SCD.1,2 Other therapies currently in use aim to prevent and treat the complications of SCD. In clinical trials, HU has been shown to reduce the median occurrence of painful crises by 44% compared with placebo3 and lowers TCD velocities in children with SCD,4 although whether this reduces risk of stroke is yet to be established. Intermittent or chronic transfusion therapy is used to increase Hb content and oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and decrease the proportion of circulating sickle cells. It is becoming increasingly utilized to significantly reduce the risk of stroke and other SCD complications.5,6 Iron overload is a major complication arising from the increased use of transfusion therapy. However, evidence is growing that iron burden in SCD can be effectively managed with iron chelation therapy.7 References Hoppe CC and Walters MC. Curr Opin Oncol 2001;13:85–90. Walters MC et al. Blood 2000;95:1918–1924. Carache S et al. New Engl J Med 1995;332:1317–1322. Zimmerman SA et al. Blood 2007;110:1043–1047. Styles LA and Vichinsky E. J Pediatr 1994;125:909–911. Adams RJ et al. N Engl J Med 1998;339:5–11. Vichinsky E et al. Br J Haematol 2007;136:501–508. 1Hoppe CC, Walters MC. Curr Opin Oncol. 2001;13: Walters MC, et al. Blood. 2000;95: Carache S, et al. N Engl J Med. 1995;332: Zimmerman SA, et al. Blood. 2007;110: Styles LA, Vichinsky E. J Pediatr. 1994;125: Adams RJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:5-11.

45 Summary—TCD TCD is a safe, inexpensive, and non-invasive diagnostic tool1 intracranial arterial blood flow velocities are presented as wave-form recording blood flow velocities predict stroke risk Intracranial arteries are examined (insonated) via 4 acoustic windows in the skull1 Imaging TCD adds further information2 visualization of arteries enables angle-corrected blood velocity measurement References Kassab MY et al. J Am Board Fam Med 2007;20:65–71. Krejza J et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000;174:1297–1303. 1Kassab MY, et al. J Am Board Fam Med. 2007;20: Krejza J, et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174:

46 Summary—TCD in SCD Children and teenagers with SCD: very high risk of stroke and stroke-related morbidity and mortality1–3 TAMMV ≥ 200 cm/s in MCA or intracranial ICA indicates high stroke risk in children4 Landmark STOP trial: TCD screening can identify patients with high-risk SCD5 TCD screening, accompanied by transfusion therapy in high-risk patients, has reduced the annualized stroke rate in SCD6 High proportion of untreated children with SCD and ‘‘borderline’’ TCD velocities converts to high risk over time7 US and UK guidelines recommend TCD screening for children with SCD aged 2–16 years8,9 References Ohene-Frempong K et al. Blood 1998;91:288–294. Manci EA et al. Br J Haematol 2003;123:359–365. Miller ST et al. J Pediatr 2001;139:385–390. Adams RJ et al. Ann Neurol 1997;42:699–704. Adams RJ et al. N Engl J Med 1998;339:5–11. Armstrong-Wells J et al. Neurology 2009;72:1316–1321. Hankins JS et al. Br J Haematol 2008;142:94–99. NIH. Clinical alerts from the NHLBI, Sept 18, 1997: NHS. Transcranial Doppler Scanning for Children with Sickle Cell Disease, March 2009: FINDER/ViewResource.aspx?resID= 1Ohene-Frempong K, et al. Blood. 1998;91: Manci EA, et al. Br J Haematol. 2003;123: Miller ST, et al. J Pediatr. 2001;139: Adams RJ, et al. Ann Neurol. 1997;42: Adams RJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 1998;339: Armstrong-Wells J, et al. Neurology. 2009;72: Hankins JS, et al. Br J Haematol. 2008;142: NIH. Clinical alerts from the NHLBI Sept 18. 9www.library.nhs.uk/GUIDELINESFINDER/ViewResource.aspx?resID= Accessed Nov 2010.

47 GLOSSARY OF TERMS

48 GLOSSARY AML = acute myeloid leukemia APFR = Atrialp peak filling rate
BA = basilar artery ß-TM = Beta Thalassemia Major ß-TI = Beta Thalassemia Intermedia BM = bone marrow BTM = bone marrow transplantation BW = bandwidth CFU = colony-forming unit CMML = chronic myelomonocytic leukemia CT2 = cardiac T2*. DAPI = 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole References Kassab MY et al. J Am Board Fam Med 2007;20:65–71. Krejza J et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000;174:1297–1303.

49 GLOSSARY DFS = = disease-free survival. DysE = dyserythropoiesis
ECG = electrocardiography EDV = end-diastolic velocity EF = ejection fraction EPFR = early peak filling rate FatSat = fat saturation FAQ = frequently asked questions FDA = Food and Drug Administration FISH = fluorescence in situ hybridization. FOV = field of view GBP = Currency, pound sterling (£)

50 GLOSSARY Hb = hemoglobin HbE = hemoglobin E HbF = fetal hemoglobin
HbS = sickle cell hemoglobin. HbSS = sickle cell anemia. HIC = hepatic iron concentration HU = hydroxyurea ICA = internal carotid artery. ICT = iron chelation therapy IDL = interface description language IPSS = International Prognostic Scoring System iso = isochromosome

51 GLOSSARY LIC = liver iron concentration
LVEF = left-ventricular ejection fraction MCA = middle cerebral artery MDS = Myelodysplastic syndromes MDS-U = myelodysplastic syndrome, unclassified MRA = magnetic resonance angiography MRI = magnetic resonance imaging MV = mean velocity. N = neutropenia NEX = number of excitations NIH = National Institute of Health OS = overall survival

52 GLOSSARY pB = peripheral blood PI = pulsatility index
PSV = peak systolic Velocity RA =refractory anemia RAEB = refractory anemia with excess blasts RAEB -T = refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation RARS = refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts RBC = red blood cells RF = radio-frequency RCMD = refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia RCMD-RS = refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia with ringed sideroblasts RCUD = refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia

53 GLOSSARY RN = refractory neutropenia ROI = region of interest
RT = refractory thrombocytopenia SCD = sickle cell disease SD = standard deviation SI = signal intensity SIR = signal intensity ratio SF = serum ferritin SNP-a = single-nucleotide polymorphism SQUID = superconducting quantum interface device. STOP = = Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia STOP II = Optimizing Primary Stroke Prevention in Sickle Cell Anemia

54 GLOSSARY T = thrombocytopenia
TAMMV = time-averaged mean of the maximum velocity. TCCS = transcranial colour-coded sonography TCD = transcranial doppler ultrasonography TCDI = duplex (imaging TCD) TE = echo time TR = repetition time WHO = World Health Organization WPSS = WHO classification-based Prognostic Scoring System


Download ppt "NOTE: These slides are for use in educational oral presentations only"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google