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Anatomy and Physiology

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1 Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 10 Blood Anatomy and Physiology

2 Blood - Introduction Blood – (only) liquid connective tissue that consists of cells and cell fragments surrounded by a liquid matrix called plasma. Total blood volume for avg. adult female = 4 to 5 liters and avg. adult male = 5 to 6 L Blood makes up about 8% of total body weight

3 Functions of Blood Transports oxygen, nutrients, enzymes, and hormones
Transports CO2 and waste products away from tissue Maintains body temperature Maintains body fluids

4 Blood Facts Oxygen enters blood in the lungs and CO2 enters blood from tissues. 45% of the volume of blood consist of RBC (a.k.a erythrocytes) <1% consists of WBC (leukocytes) and cell fragments called platelets (thrombocytes) 55% of volume is plasma (liquid portion)

5 Blood Grouping Blood groups are determined by antigens on the surface of RBC. Antigens are microscopic molecules Antibodies will bind to the antigens resulting in agglutination or hemolysis or RBC. Agglutination – clumping of RBC Hemolysis – rupture of RBC

6 ABO Blood Group Blood is categorized by the ABO Blood group system
ABO antigens appear on the surface of RBC

7 Blood Types Type A Blood – A antigen Type B Blood – B antigen
Type AB Blood – A and B antigen Type O Blood – does not have A or B

8 Population Distribution
Type A – ~ 41% Type B – ~ 10% Type AB – ~ 4% Type O – ~ 45% Rh+ - 85% Rh- - 15%


10 Blood Types Type A Blood – B antibodies Type B Blood – A antibodies
Type AB Blood – does not have A or B Type O Blood – has A and B Mismatching Blood groups can result in transfusion reaction.

11 Rh Blood Group Another blood group that was first studied in the Rhesus monkey. Rh+ - Rh antigens on RBC Rh- - Rh antigens are not present Can cause a problem in pregnancy if mother is Rh- and baby is Rh+ Mother will make antibodies against the baby Prevention – mother gets shot of Rho immune globulin

12 Transfusions Transfusion – transfer of blood
Donor – person who gives blood Recipient – person who receives blood Universal Donor – Type O Blood Universal Recipient – Type AB Blood

13 Blood Transfusion Chart

14 Plasma Made up of 90% H2O Other 10% is made up of: electrolytes, hormones, proteins, and various metabolic waste. Albumin- liver produced protein found in plasma. Functions include: keeps water in bloodstream, help stop blood loss when blood vessels are damaged.

15 Erythrocytes Disc shaped
Live ~ 120 days in males and 110 days in females Transport oxygen and remove CO2 Contain hemoglobin Biconcave disc (flattened disc with depressed center)- provide large surface area for transportation of gases.

16 Erythrocytes Hemoglobin bound to oxygen is bright red in color
Hemoglobin that is without oxygen is darker red ~2/3 of body’s iron is found in hemoglobin Lack nucleus( can’t undergo mitosis) Lack mitochondria (can’t use oxygen to create energy)

17 Complete Blood Count CBC – complete blood count
Analysis of RBC, hemoglobin, and WBC RBC – male – 4.6 to 6.2 million/mm3 Female – 4.2 to 5.4 million/mm3 WBC – 5000 – 9000/mm3

18 Hemoglobin Measurement
Determined amount of hemoglobin in a given volume of blood Male – 14 to 18 grams/100mL Female – 12 to 16 grams/100mL Low hemoglobin – anemia – low RBC

19 Anemia A decreased ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Causes: Blood loss (Injury or menstrual cycle), bacterial infections, lack of Vitamin B12 , medicine side effects, lack of iron in diet (red meat, certain beans, wheat and green vegetables), or disorders. Symptoms: fatigue, pale skin, headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, or cold hands and feet.

20 Sickle Cell Anemia Blood cells shaped like a crescent moon which causes anemia and sluggish blood flow which impairs circulation (oxygen delivery). Blood cells shape causes them to block small blood vessels which causes extreme pain/discomfort. Occurs in people of African descent. Shape of RBC does not allow the Malaria parasite to reproduce in the body.

21 Sickle Cell

22 Blocked Blood Vessel

23 History of RBC ~2.5 million RBC are destroyed every second
New RBC are produced as quickly as they are destroyed Hematopoiesis – process of blood cell production Low blood oxygen level will cause RBC production Blood cells are formed in red marrow in bones Jaundice – liver can’t rid the blood of hemoglobin by-products in blood causing a yellow skin color

24 Types of Bone Marrow Red Marrow – found in spongy bone and forms WBC, RBC, and platelets Yellow Marrow – composed of fat and is not capable of blood cell formation Adult blood formation occurs in humerus, femur, cranium, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae

25 Leukocytes White blood cells
Whitish color because they lack hemoglobin Larger than RBC Far less numerous than RBC Have a nucleus Protects against microorganisms If person’s WBC count is high - infection

26 2 Major Types of Leukocytes
Granulocytes – contain large cytoplasmic granules Agranulocytes – contain small granules

27 3 Kinds of Granulocytes 1.Neutrophils – most common type
Remains is blood ~ hours Dead cell debris forms pus at site of infection Function- Active phagocytes, increase during times of acute infection. 2.Eosinophils – release chemicals that reduce inflammation Function- kill parasitic worms, increase during allergic reactions.

28 Granulocytes Cont’d 3.Basophils – help regulate inflammatory response
Release histamine = promotes inflammation Histamines are vasodilators, which increase blood flow to area. Inflammation is a result of increased blood flow and accumulation of cells in area that is healing/fighting microorganisms.

29 2 Types of Agranulocytes
1.Lymphocytes – smallest of WBC Plays important role in body’s immune system Produces antibodies Important in fighting tumors and viruses. 2.Monocytes – largest WBC After they leave the blood and into the tissue – they become macrophages Macrophages – destroy bacteria, dead cells, and other debris Increase during chronic infections

30 Platelets Thrombocytes – minute fragments of cells
Produced in red marrow Prevent blood loss by causing blood clotting ~ 300,000 per mm3

31 Preventing Blood Loss Blood clot – thrombus Embolus – detached clot A heart attack can occur from blockage of blood vessels that supply blood to heart Aspirin can be given to break down the clot Blood vessels constrict in response to injury, resulting in decreased blood flow. A platelet plug is produced to seal off the wound Serotonin is released to cause the blood vessels to constrict.

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