Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 10 BloodAnatomy and Physiology
2 Blood - IntroductionBlood – (only) liquid connective tissue that consists of cells and cell fragments surrounded by a liquid matrix called plasma.Total blood volume for avg. adult female = 4 to 5 liters and avg. adult male = 5 to 6 LBlood makes up about 8% of total body weight
3 Functions of Blood Transports oxygen, nutrients, enzymes, and hormones Transports CO2 and waste products away from tissueMaintains body temperatureMaintains body fluids
4 Blood FactsOxygen enters blood in the lungs and CO2 enters blood from tissues.45% of the volume of blood consist of RBC (a.k.a erythrocytes)<1% consists of WBC (leukocytes) and cell fragments called platelets (thrombocytes)55% of volume is plasma (liquid portion)
5 Blood GroupingBlood groups are determined by antigens on the surface of RBC.Antigens are microscopic moleculesAntibodies will bind to the antigens resulting in agglutination or hemolysis or RBC.Agglutination – clumping of RBCHemolysis – rupture of RBC
6 ABO Blood Group Blood is categorized by the ABO Blood group system ABO antigens appear on the surface of RBC
7 Blood Types Type A Blood – A antigen Type B Blood – B antigen Type AB Blood – A and B antigenType O Blood – does not have A or B
8 Population Distribution Type A – ~ 41%Type B – ~ 10%Type AB – ~ 4%Type O – ~ 45%Rh+ - 85%Rh- - 15%
10 Blood Types Type A Blood – B antibodies Type B Blood – A antibodies Type AB Blood – does not have A or BType O Blood – has A and BMismatching Blood groups can result in transfusion reaction.
11 Rh Blood GroupAnother blood group that was first studied in the Rhesus monkey.Rh+ - Rh antigens on RBCRh- - Rh antigens are not presentCan cause a problem in pregnancy if mother is Rh- and baby is Rh+Mother will make antibodies against the babyPrevention – mother gets shot of Rho immune globulin
12 Transfusions Transfusion – transfer of blood Donor – person who gives bloodRecipient – person who receives bloodUniversal Donor – Type O BloodUniversal Recipient – Type AB Blood
14 PlasmaMade up of 90% H2OOther 10% is made up of: electrolytes, hormones, proteins, and various metabolic waste.Albumin- liver produced protein found in plasma. Functions include: keeps water in bloodstream, help stop blood loss when blood vessels are damaged.
15 Erythrocytes Disc shaped Live ~ 120 days in males and 110 days in femalesTransport oxygen and remove CO2Contain hemoglobinBiconcave disc (flattened disc with depressed center)- provide large surface area for transportation of gases.
16 Erythrocytes Hemoglobin bound to oxygen is bright red in color Hemoglobin that is without oxygen is darker red~2/3 of body’s iron is found in hemoglobinLack nucleus( can’t undergo mitosis)Lack mitochondria (can’t use oxygen to create energy)
17 Complete Blood Count CBC – complete blood count Analysis of RBC, hemoglobin, and WBCRBC – male – 4.6 to 6.2 million/mm3Female – 4.2 to 5.4 million/mm3WBC – 5000 – 9000/mm3
18 Hemoglobin Measurement Determined amount of hemoglobin in a given volume of bloodMale – 14 to 18 grams/100mLFemale – 12 to 16 grams/100mLLow hemoglobin – anemia – low RBC
19 Anemia A decreased ability of the blood to carry oxygen. Causes: Blood loss (Injury or menstrual cycle), bacterial infections, lack of Vitamin B12 , medicine side effects, lack of iron in diet (red meat, certain beans, wheat and green vegetables), or disorders.Symptoms: fatigue, pale skin, headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, or cold hands and feet.
20 Sickle Cell AnemiaBlood cells shaped like a crescent moon which causes anemia and sluggish blood flow which impairs circulation (oxygen delivery).Blood cells shape causes them to block small blood vessels which causes extreme pain/discomfort.Occurs in people of African descent. Shape of RBC does not allow the Malaria parasite to reproduce in the body.
23 History of RBC ~2.5 million RBC are destroyed every second New RBC are produced as quickly as they are destroyedHematopoiesis – process of blood cell productionLow blood oxygen level will cause RBC productionBlood cells are formed in red marrow in bonesJaundice – liver can’t rid the blood of hemoglobin by-products in blood causing a yellow skin color
24 Types of Bone MarrowRed Marrow – found in spongy bone and forms WBC, RBC, and plateletsYellow Marrow – composed of fat and is not capable of blood cell formationAdult blood formation occurs in humerus, femur, cranium, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae
25 Leukocytes White blood cells Whitish color because they lack hemoglobinLarger than RBCFar less numerous than RBCHave a nucleusProtects against microorganismsIf person’s WBC count is high - infection
26 2 Major Types of Leukocytes Granulocytes – contain large cytoplasmic granulesAgranulocytes – contain small granules
27 3 Kinds of Granulocytes 1.Neutrophils – most common type Remains is blood ~ hoursDead cell debris forms pus at site of infectionFunction- Active phagocytes, increase during times of acute infection.2.Eosinophils – release chemicals that reduce inflammationFunction- kill parasitic worms, increase during allergic reactions.
28 Granulocytes Cont’d 3.Basophils – help regulate inflammatory response Release histamine = promotes inflammationHistamines are vasodilators, which increase blood flow to area.Inflammation is a result of increased blood flow and accumulation of cells in area that is healing/fighting microorganisms.
29 2 Types of Agranulocytes 1.Lymphocytes – smallest of WBCPlays important role in body’s immune systemProduces antibodiesImportant in fighting tumors and viruses.2.Monocytes – largest WBCAfter they leave the blood and into the tissue – they become macrophagesMacrophages – destroy bacteria, dead cells, and other debrisIncrease during chronic infections
30 Platelets Thrombocytes – minute fragments of cells Produced in red marrowPrevent blood loss by causing blood clotting~ 300,000 per mm3
31 Preventing Blood LossBlood clot – thrombusEmbolus – detached clotA heart attack can occur from blockage of blood vessels that supply blood to heartAspirin can be given to break down the clotBlood vessels constrict in response to injury, resulting in decreased blood flow.A platelet plug is produced to seal off the woundSerotonin is released to cause the blood vessels to constrict.