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Iron Deficiency Anemia Sara Merley Nutrition – Professor Brown

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1 Iron Deficiency Anemia Sara Merley Nutrition – Professor Brown

2 Definition Iron deficiency anemia is caused from a shortness of iron in the body. “[Iron] is a component of hemoglobin (which transports oxygen within red blood cells) and some enzymes” (Hoehn, Marieb). The iron-rich protein, hemoglobin, is essential to the transportation of oxygen to the body’s tissues. Disorders/Anemia/5225.aspx In America, there are over 3 million people effected by anemia.

3 Heme vs. Non-Heme HEME IRON – “Iron provided from animal tissues in the form of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Approximately 40% of the iron in meat is heme iron; it is readily absorbed” (Wardlaw). NON-HEME IRON – “Iron provided from plant sources and animal tissues other than in the forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Non-heme iron is less efficiently absorbed than heme iron; absorption is closely dependent on body needs” (Wardlaw).

4 Symptoms of IDA Paleness or “Sallow Skin”
Extreme fatigue / lack of energy Chest pain Shortness of breath Headaches Feeling weak Rapid heart rate Sore or smooth tongue

5 Poor appetite / unusual cravings for non-nutritional substances such as ice or clay.
An uncomfortable crawling feeling in your legs Cold hands and feet Irritability Brittle Nails

6 Common Causation of Iron-Deficiency Anemia
1) Most predominately, lack of iron within the food one consumes. 2) Blood Loss; most prevalent in women because of menstruation. 3) Pregnancy; because of the increased blood volume and source of hemoglobin as the fetus grows. 4) Inability to absorb the iron consumed into one’s bloodstream.

7 Population Distribution
Because iron-deficiency anemia can simply be caused by lack of iron in the diet, it can happen at any time in a person’s life. There are factors in which it appears to be more common however: Women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Women whom are pregnant or breastfeeding with recently given birth. People with a gastrointestinal disease such as Celiac or Crohn’s disease. Vegetarians and Vegans.

8 Other Causes of IDA: Hemorrhoids Frequent blood donations
Intravascular Hemolysis (condition where RBC break down in the blood stream then causing a release of excess iron into the urine). Stomach / Bowel Ulcers

9 Lack of Iron in One’s Diet; How much is enough?
Women years old need to consume 18 milligrams per day. Men (all ages) and women over 50 only have to consume 8 milligrams. Diet is one of the most prevalent ways of becoming iron-deficient anemic. Especially in women whom do not consume a great deal of iron-rich foods.

10 Diagnosed, how much is enough?
In patients diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia it is recommended that they consume 2 – 5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day. Still is highly advised to discuss the proper amount with one’s doctor.

11 Diagnosis Process IDA is diagnosed through a blood test of a complete blood count; when someone is diagnosed the test results usually show: Low hemoglobin and hematocrit Low mean cellular volume Low ferritin Low serum iron High transferrin Low iron saturation

12 Iron-Rich Foods Clams (3 ounces)  14 milligrams
Spinach (1 cup)  6.4 milligrams Kidney Beans (1 cup)  5.3 milligrams Pot Roast (4 ounces)  3.9 milligrams Sirloin Steak (4 ounces)  3.8 milligrams Garbanzo Beans (1/2 cup)  2.4 milligrams Baked Potato (average 1)  1.7 milligrams

13 More general food overview
MEAT: beef or lamb; especially organs meats and dark meats. FISH: primarily shellfish. LEAFY GREENS: broccoli and turnip greens. LEGUMES: Lima beans, peas, and black-eyed peas. IRON-ENRICHED: pastas, grains, and cereals.

14 More Iron Cook with a cast-iron pan; some of the iron will
be absorbed into the food. IRON supplement; In my opinion, the best iron supplement is “Slow FE” since taking an iron supplement can cause constipation.

15 Absorption of Iron Vitamin C is extremely helpful to the absorption of iron. As one consumes iron, vitamin C will wrap around the iron ions protecting it against destruction from stomach acid; so that then the iron may reach the small intestine where it is absorbed in the duodenum and first part of the jejunum. Interesting fact: children are encouraged not to drink more than 16 to 24 ounces of cow’s milk per day because it can in turn, inhibit the absorption of iron.

16 Other treatment Red blood cell transfusions – are performed for patients with severe iron-deficiency anemia. For example, severe bleeding, chest pain, and weakness. Intravenous Iron – this is used for iron-deficient patients whom, have the tendency to not absorb iron well in the gastrointestinal tract, have extreme blood loss, are receiving a hormone that increases blood loss, or cannot tolerate taking an iron supplement.

17 DIET PLAN – DAY 1 Breakfast – Oatmeal (iron-enriched)
Fried egg (cooked on cast-iron pan) SLOW FE iron supplement with 1 cup orange juice 4 prunes ½ cup blueberries SNACK – Handful of raw almonds and walnuts.

18 Lunch – Dinner – Spinach salad with: turkey, broccoli, and brown rice.
1 Orange Dinner – Top sirloin steak 1 baked potato Peas and green peppers Strawberries

19 DAY 2 Breakfast – Cheerios (iron-enriched) with cranberries.
2 fried eggs (on cast-iron pan) Strawberries SLOW FE iron supplement with orange juice. SNACK – Cashews and almonds

20 Lunch – Dinner – Clams & Oysters 1 baked potato Cantaloupe Beef Liver
Lentils Broccoli Prune Juice and blueberries

21 DAY 3 Breakfast – SNACK – Oatmeal Fried Eggs Blueberries
SLOW FE iron-supplement with orange juice. SNACK – Chickpeas and broccoli

22 Lunch – Dinner – Bean soup (kidney & white beans) Grapefruit
White bread toast Dinner – Prime rib steak with sliced raw almonds Baked potato Green beans Strawberries

23 QUESTIONS! (: What is one very common cause of iron-deficiency anemia?
What are three foods that are high in iron? What are three symptoms that could indicate a person has iron-deficiency anemia?

24 Bibliography Works Cited Marieb, Elaine N., and Katja Hoehn. "Chapter 2 and Chapter 17." Human Anatomy & Physiology. Eighth ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, Print. Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Iron-deficiency Anemia." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 04 Mar Web. 03 Mar <>. Tsang, Gloria. "Iron Rich Foods for Iron Deficiency Anemia." Nutrition Advice by Registered Dietitians. Healthcastle Nutrition Inc., 20 Feb Web. 03 Mar <>. Unknown. "American Society of Hematology." Iron-Deficiency Anemia. American Society to Hematology, Web. 03 Mar <>. Wardlaw, Gordon M., and Anne M. Smith. "Chapter 9: Water and Minerals. Glossary." Contemporary Nutrition. Eighth ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Print.

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