Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chromosomal Abnormalities

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chromosomal Abnormalities"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chromosomal Abnormalities
Errors of Meiosis Chromosomal Abnormalities (Ch. 15)

2 Pedigree analysis Pedigree analysis reveals Mendelian patterns in human inheritance data mapped on a family tree = male = female = male w/ trait = female w/ trait

3 Simple pedigree analysis
What’s the likely inheritance pattern? 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

4 sequence individual genes
Genetic testing sequence individual genes

5 Philadelphia chromosome

6 - Causes a form of leukemia

7 Cystic fibrosis (recessive)
Primarily whites of European descent strikes 1 in 2500 births 1 in 25 whites is a carrier (Aa) normal allele codes for a membrane protein that transports Cl- across cell membrane defective or absent channels limit transport of Cl- & H2O across cell membrane Thick, sticky, mucus coats around cells mucus build-up in the pancreas, lungs, digestive tract & causes bacterial infections without treatment children die before 5; with treatment can live past their late 20s normal lung tissue Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that is relatively common in the U.S. Cystic fibrosis affects multiple parts of the body including the pancreas, the sweat glands, and the lungs. When someone has cystic fibrosis, they often have lots of lung problems. The cause of their lung problems is directly related to basic problems with diffusion and osmosis in the large airways of the lungs. People without cystic fibrosis have a small layer of salt water in the large airways of their lungs. This layer of salt water is under the mucus layer which lines the airways. The mucus layer in the airways helps to clear dust and other inhaled particles from the lungs.

8 bacteria & mucus build up mucus secreting glands
Effect on Lungs Chloride channel transports salt through protein channel out of cell Osmosis: H2O follows Cl– normal lungs airway Cl– Cl– channel H2O cells lining lungs cystic fibrosis Cl– In people without cystic fibrosis, working cystic fibrosis proteins allow salt (chloride) to enter the air space and water follows by osmosis. The mucus layer is dilute and not very sticky. In people with cystic fibrosis, non-working cystic fibrosis proteins mean no salt (chloride) enters the air space and water doesn't either. The mucus layer is concentrated and very sticky. People with cystic fibrosis have lung problems because: Proteins for diffusion of salt into the airways don't work. (less diffusion) Less salt in the airways means less water in the airways. (less osmosis) Less water in the airways means mucus layer is very sticky (viscous). Sticky mucus cannot be easily moved to clear particles from the lungs. Sticky mucus traps bacteria and causes more lung infections. Therefore, because of less diffusion of salt and less osmosis of water, people with cystic fibrosis have too much sticky mucus in the airways of their lungs and get lots of lung infections. Thus, they are sick a lot. H2O bacteria & mucus build up thickened mucus hard to secrete mucus secreting glands

9 delta F508 loss of one amino acid

10 Tay-Sachs (recessive)
Primarily Jews of eastern European (Ashkenazi) descent & Cajuns (Louisiana) 1 in 3600 births non-functional enzyme fails to breakdown lipids in brain cells fats collect in cells destroying their function symptoms begin few months after birth seizures, blindness, muscular & mental degeneration child usually dies before 5

11 Sickle cell anemia (recessive)
Primarily Africans 1 out of 400 African Americans caused by substitution of a single amino acid in hemoglobin when oxygen levels are low, sickle-cell hemoglobin crystallizes into long rods deforms red blood cells into sickle shape sickling creates pleiotropic effects = cascade of other symptoms

12 hydrophilic amino acid hydrophobic amino acid
Sickle cell anemia Substitution of one amino acid in polypeptide chain hydrophilic amino acid hydrophobic amino acid

13 Huntington’s chorea (dominant)
Dominant inheritance repeated mutation on end of chromosome 4 mutation = CAG repeats glutamine amino acid repeats in protein one of 1st genes to be identified build up of “huntingtin” protein in brain causing cell death memory loss muscle tremors, jerky movements “chorea” starts at age 30-50 early death: years after start 1872 Testing… Would you want to know?

14 Woody Guthrie & Arlo Guthrie









23 Hemophilia is a sex-linked recessive trait defined by the absence of one or more clotting factors.
These proteins normally slow and then stop bleeding. Individuals with hemophilia have prolonged bleeding because a firm clot forms slowly. Bleeding in muscles and joints can be painful and lead to serious damage. Individuals can be treated with intravenous injections of the missing protein.

24 Genetics & culture All cultures have a taboo against incest. laws or cultural taboos forbidding marriages between close relatives are fairly universal Fairly unlikely that 2 unrelated carriers of same rare harmful recessive allele will meet & mate matings between close relatives increase risk “consanguineous” (same blood) matings individuals who share a recent common ancestor are more likely to carry same recessive alleles

25 Chromosomal abnormalities
Incorrect number of chromosomes nondisjunction chromosomes don’t separate properly during meiosis breakage of chromosomes deletion duplication inversion translocation

26 Nondisjunction Problems with meiotic spindle cause errors in daughter cells homologous chromosomes do not separate properly during Meiosis 1 sister chromatids fail to separate during Meiosis 2 too many or too few chromosomes 2n n-1 n n+1

27 Alteration of chromosome number
error in Meiosis 1 error in Meiosis 2 all with incorrect number 1/2 with incorrect number

28 Nondisjunction Offspring has wrong chromosome number trisomy monosomy
cells have 3 copies of a chromosome monosomy cells have only 1 copy of a chromosome n+1 n n-1 n trisomy 2n+1 monosomy 2n-1

29 Down syndrome Trisomy 21 3 copies of chromosome 21 1 in 700 children born in U.S. Chromosome 21 is the smallest human chromosome but still severe effects Frequency of Down syndrome correlates with the age of the mother

30 Trisomy 21

31 Down syndrome & age of mother
Mother’s age Incidence of Down Syndrome Under 30 <1 in 1000 30 1 in 900 35 1 in 400 36 1 in 300 37 1 in 230 38 1 in 180 39 1 in 135 40 1 in 105 42 1 in 60 44 1 in 35 46 1 in 20 48 1 in 16 49 1 in 12

32 Genetic testing Amniocentesis in 2nd trimester Analysis of karyotype
sample of embryo cells stain & photograph chromosomes Analysis of karyotype

33 Pre-Sorted:

34 Post-Sorted: It’s A Boy!


36 Klinefelter’s syndrome
XXY male one in every 2000 live births have male sex organs, but are sterile feminine characteristics some breast development lack of facial hair tall normal intelligence

37 Jacob’s syndrome male XYY Males 1 in 1000 live male births
extra Y chromosome slightly taller than average more active normal intelligence, slight learning disabilities delayed emotional maturity normal sexual development

38 Trisomy X XXX 1 in every 2000 live births produces healthy females
Why? Barr bodies all but one X chromosome is inactivated How many Barr bodies would you expect?

39 Turner syndrome Monosomy X or X0 1 in every 5000 births
varied degree of effects webbed neck short stature sterile How many Barr bodies would you expect?

40 Changes in chromosome structure
deletion loss of a chromosomal segment duplication repeat a segment inversion reverses a segment translocation move segment from one chromosome to another error of replication error of crossing over

41 Meanwhile in Plants... Plants are very tolerant of polyploid mutations. Offspring with extra sets of chromosomes experience gigantism. Most crops are polyploid.

42 Don’t hide… Ask Questions!!

Download ppt "Chromosomal Abnormalities"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google