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Genetic Disorders Inheritance of Genetic Traits. Genetic code §1966 §The Genetic code was discovered §Scientists are able to predict characteristics by.

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Presentation on theme: "Genetic Disorders Inheritance of Genetic Traits. Genetic code §1966 §The Genetic code was discovered §Scientists are able to predict characteristics by."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetic Disorders Inheritance of Genetic Traits

2 Genetic code §1966 §The Genetic code was discovered §Scientists are able to predict characteristics by studying DNA. §This leads to genetic engineering, genetic counseling.

3 DNA Fingerprinting §The late 1980's. §An international team of scientists began the project to map the human genome. §The first crime conviction based on DNA fingerprinting in Portland Oregon.

4 Human Genome Project Completed in year project /resource/tdc02.sci.life.gen.hgp /http://www.teachersdomain.org /resource/tdc02.sci.life.gen.hgp /

5 Human Genome Project §http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/video/2012/s ep/05/encode-human-genome-junk-dna-videohttp://www.guardian.co.uk/science/video/2012/s ep/05/encode-human-genome-junk-dna-video

6 Human Genome Project §A project that set out to detect all the genes §Will help begin to treat diseases by altering our very genes‚ giving us new ones if ours are non- functional, changing bad genes for good ones.

7 Gene Therapy §1990. §Gene therapy was used on patients for the first time.

8 DNA Testing §1995. §DNA testing in forensics cases gains fame in the O.J. Simpson trial.

9 Cloning Begins §1997. §Dolly the sheep - the first adult animal clone. §http://www.schooltube. com/video/79993a85a3 ae0c3d6321/Cloning- Animationhttp://www.schooltube. com/video/79993a85a3 ae0c3d6321/Cloning- Animation

10 Genetic Disorders

11 Sickle Cell Anemia §Inherited §red blood cells, normally disc-shaped, become crescent shaped §function abnormally and cause small blood clots § These clots give rise to recurrent painful episodes called "sickle cell pain crises". §http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=2o3wQ- mJZuQhttp://www.youtube.com /watch?v=2o3wQ- mJZuQ

12 Sickle Cell §Sickle cell disease is most commonly found in African American populations. This disease was discovered over 80 years ago, but has not been given the attention it deserves.

13 Mutations §inherited from a parent §a mistake that is present in the DNA of all body cells. §The mutation is copied every time body cells divide

14 §Mutations occur all the time in every cell in the body. Each cell, however, has the remarkable ability to recognize mistakes and fix them before it passes them along to its descendants. But a cell's DNA repair mechanisms can fail, or be overwhelmed, or become less efficient with age. Over time, mistakes can accumulate. Read and Discuss:

15 Would You Want to Know? §Would you want to know if you or your children had a strong likelihood of getting certain types of cancer or genetic disorders? §Explain why or why not?

16 Sickle Cell §http://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=1fN7rOwDyMQhttp://www.youtube.com/watc h?v=1fN7rOwDyMQ §What if the recessive gene in your imaginary family of four were a gene for sickle cell anemia? §How many of these offspring would have the disease? §How many would be protected against malaria?

17 Sickle Cell §How can a mutation be harmful in one environment and helpful in another? §Why should a mutation persist if it kills people? §Why are there more people with sickle cell disease in one part of the world than in other parts?

18 Index Card Activity §Each card represent a gene for an unknown trait §You have an allele on each card. §What would the genotype for this trait be called? §Each of you is heterozygous for this trait because you have one dominant and one recessive gene.

19 Pair Up Randomly §Pair up with someone in your group. §Hold your gene cards behind your back, shuffle them, count to three, and then put one card in front of you. §Your alleles together become the genotype. §Write down the genotype of this offspring. §Repeat three more times to determine the probability for four children §How many of your children will have a recessive genetic disorder? Aa

20 Tay-Sachs Disease: fatal genetic disorder that causes progressive destruction of the brain in young children. One Wrong Letter

21 Tay-Sachs Disease §Assume that the "a" allele in your gene cards was a gene for Tay-Sachs disease. How many of your offspring would have the disease?

22

23 Mutation of Genes - Cancer §Geneticists have learned that a mutation in two specific genes have been linked to a high risk of breast and ovarian cancer. §These genes are called BRCA1 and BRCA2, short for breast cancer 1 and breast cancer 2 §They can do testing to find out if you carry the mutated genes

24 Gene Mutation

25 Discussion §What happens if you receive a mutated gene? §According to the previous slide, could your body fix the mutated gene? §Would you want to know if you carried a mutated cancer gene?

26 What happens next? (Slideshow)

27 What is Cancer? Animation Video

28 Cancer – Good Cells Gone Bad §Baggies l Normal Cells and What the Items Represent l Cancer Cells and What the Items Represent §Discuss with your group the different items in the bag. l Be able to talk about one of the items if called on

29 Textbook – Page 403 §Read the section on Lung Cancer

30 So Is Cancer Genetic? §Some types are genetic. §The most common are: l Breast Cancer l Ovarian Cancer l Prostate Cancer l Colorectal Cancer

31 Cancer Facts: How Does Lung Cancer Develop Video §http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dd2jY STi9NMhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dd2jY STi9NM

32 DNA – So What is It? §http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwibgN Ge4aYhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwibgN Ge4aY

33 Extracting DNA §Directions: os/ht/dnafromabanana.htm os/ht/dnafromabanana.htm §Video: P-aQ P-aQ


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