# Week 5. sample question 1 Imagine that you’re an insect biologist and want to study wing coloration in the scarlet tiger moth (Panaxia dominula). Previous.

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week 5

sample question 1 Imagine that you’re an insect biologist and want to study wing coloration in the scarlet tiger moth (Panaxia dominula). Previous research has shown that coloration in this species behaves as a single-locus, two-allele system with incomplete dominance. You decide to go to the field and collect specimens to study whether little spotting is an advantageous trait. You collect 1612 individuals. Their data are below: White-spotted (AA) =1469 Intermediate (Aa) = 138 Little spotting (aa) = 5 Calculate the following frequencies: A = a = AA = Aa = aa =

sample question 1 Imagine that you’re an insect biologist and want to study wing coloration in the scarlet tiger moth (Panaxia dominula). Previous research has shown that coloration in this species behaves as a single-locus, two-allele system with incomplete dominance. You decide to go to the field and collect specimens to study whether little spotting is an advantageous trait. You collect 1612 individuals. Their data are below: White-spotted (AA) =1469 Intermediate (Aa) = 138 Little spotting (aa) = 5 Calculate the following frequencies: A = 1469*2 + 138 = 3076 / (1612*2) = 0.95 a = 5*2 + 138 = 148 / 3224 = 0.05 AA = 0.95^2*1612 = 1454.83 Aa = 2*0.95*0.05*1612 = 153.14 aa = 0.05^2*1612 = 4.03

sample question 1 Now assume that you went back and re-sampled the population five generations later to check for the possibility of rapid evolution. You found the following data: AA = 1402 Aa = 200 Aa = 10 Is this population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the p=0.05 confidence level? What about at the p=0.01 confidence level?

sample question 1 Now assume that you went back and re-sampled the population five generations later to check for the possibility of rapid evolution. You found the following data: AA = 1402 Aa = 200 Aa = 10 Is this population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the p=0.05 confidence level? What about at the p=0.01 confidence level? (1402-1454.83)^2/1454.83 + (200-153.14)^2/153.14 + (10-4.03)^2/4.03 = 1.92 + 14.34 + 8.84 = 25.1 25.1 > 3.8: significant at p=0.05

sample question 2 You have sampled a group of individuals from Conakry to test for potential resistance to malaria from sickle-cell anemia. Unfortunately, you lost most of your data in an unexpected storm and all that you have left is the percentage of the homozygous recessive genotype (aa), which is 36%. Using that information, calculate the following: f(aa) = f(a) = f(A) = f(AA) = f(Aa) = What percentage of the population in Conakry has potential resistance to malaria?

sample question 2 You have sampled a group of individuals from Conakry to test for potential resistance to malaria from sickle-cell anemia. Unfortunately, you lost most of your data in an unexpected storm and all that you have left is the percentage of the homozygous recessive genotype (aa), which is 36%. Using that information, calculate the following: f(aa) =.36 f(a) = sqrt(0.36) =.6 f(A) = 1 – 0.6 = 0.4 f(AA) = 0.4*0.4 = 0.16 f(Aa) = 2*0.4*0.6 = 0.48 What percentage of the population in Conakry has potential resistance to malaria? 36% severe homozygous (fatal), 48% heterozygous (resistant), 16% homozygous (susceptible)

species concepts which was used to differentiate extinct spp before the 80s? why use phylogenetic if criteria are more strict under biological? is there a possible hybrid approach that allows for strict criteria, but can also deal with having more than just if offspring can reproduce? does it matter which one subscribes to? are there greater scientific and political consequences of one over the other?

ring species how do ring species come about?

human impacts How might climate change impact species? Will they be able to adapt to new conditions? Or will species go extinct? Does wild vs captivity equate to geographic isolation? Is it possible then, that in the long term captive breeding might not necessarily conserve or save an existing species but contribute towards mechanisms that would create new species? To what extent has the introduction of new species in an environment by humans led to the elimination of species? What happens to an ecosystem when the tertiary consumer population is endangered by human development?

early evolution What’s a protist? how are they an artificial assemblage? How did life evolve absent of ozone? If evolution is about increasing fitness, why doesn't bacteria evolve in into a more complex or advanced organism?

assorted questions What’s the calvin cycle and what part does it play in carbon fixation? Is an intertidal community a biome? How can we reconstruct what the common ancestor of a given group of organisms was? What is a paleospecies?

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