3Introduction Blood is a liquid tissue consists of cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. These cells are:Red Blood CellsWhite Blood CellsPlatelets
4CBC test A complete blood count (CBC) is a very common clinical procedure. It tests for disorders and abnormalities of the blood and gives an indication of disease present in other organs. The components of CBC test are:Red Blood CellsWhite Blood CellsPlatelets
5Red Blood Cells CBC components Red blood cell (RBC) count is a count of the number of red blood cells / L of blood.Normal values are:Adults: (males): million, (Females): millionNewborns: millionChildren: millionPolycythemia (high altitudes, physical training, and smokers, polycythemia vera)Anemia
6Red Blood Cells CBC components Mirrors RBC results 2. Hemoglobin (Hgb) measures the amount of hemoglobin in g/dL.Normal Hgb values:Adult: (males): gm; (Females): gmNewborn: gm.Children: gmMirrors RBC results
7Red Blood Cells CBC components 3. Hematocrit (Hct) measures the percentage of red blood cells in a given volume of whole blood.Normal range:Adult: (males): (males): 45%; (Females): 35%Newborn: 65 %Children: 25 %Mirrors RBC results
8Red Blood Cells CBC components 3. Red blood cell indices Hgb < 12 g/dL or the hematocrit < 37 % AnemiaRBC indices are useful in the differential diagnosis of anemia.Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of RBCs.Macrocytic in caused by vitamin B12 and folatedeficiency anemia.Microcytic in iron deficiency anemia or thalassemias
9Red Blood Cells CBC components 3. Red blood cell indices B. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) is the average amount of hemoglobin per red blood cell.Mirror MCV result.C. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a calculation of the average concentration of hemoglobin inside a red cell.Hypochromia in iron deficiency anemia and in thalassemia.Hyperchromia as in burn patients.
10Red Blood Cells CBC components 3. Red blood cell indices Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of the variation of the RBC population.In Pernicious anemia, the amount of variation (anisocytosis) in RBC size causes an increase in the RDW.
11White Blood Cells CBC components Total white blood cell (WBC) count is a count of the actual number of white blood cells per volume of blood.White blood cell differential looks at the types of white blood cells present.There are five different types:NeutrophilsLymphocytesMonocytesEosinophilsBasophils
12White Blood Cells CBC components White blood cell differential Measures the actual number of each type of WBC per volume of bloodNeutrophilsNeutrophils account for about 70% of all white blood cells. Mainly respond to a bacterial infection.Neutrophilia in case of bacterial infection.Neutropenia due to impaired production (e.g. after chemotherapy), increased peripheral destruction (with viral infection and autoimmune disease).
13White Blood Cells CBC components White blood cell differential B. LymphocytesLymphocytosis is usually due to acute infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus infection and viral hepatitis, and chronic intracellular bacterial infection (e.g. tuberculosis).MonocytesMonocytosis (High monocyte count) is associated with chronic inflammation as tuberculosis.
14White Blood Cells CBC components White blood cell differential D. EosinophilsEosinophilia are observed mainly in parasitic infections, asthma, or allergic reaction.BasophilsMay be increased in bone marrow related conditions such as leukemia or lymphoma.
15Platelets CBC components Platelets are special cell fragments that are important in blood clotting1. The platelet countTotal number of platelets per volume of blood.Determine whether number is adequate to control bleeding.Decreased when greater numbers used, as with bleeding; with some inherited disorders.2. Mean platelet volume (MPV) is the average size of blood platelets.Younger platelets are larger than older ones.