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 Blood is a liquid tissue consists of cells suspended in a liquid called plasma.  These cells are:  R ED B LOOD C ELLS  W HITE B LOOD C ELLS  P.

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Presentation on theme: " Blood is a liquid tissue consists of cells suspended in a liquid called plasma.  These cells are:  R ED B LOOD C ELLS  W HITE B LOOD C ELLS  P."— Presentation transcript:

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3  Blood is a liquid tissue consists of cells suspended in a liquid called plasma.  These cells are:  R ED B LOOD C ELLS  W HITE B LOOD C ELLS  P LATELETS

4  A COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC) is a very common clinical procedure.  It tests for disorders and abnormalities of the blood and gives an indication of disease present in other organs.  The components of CBC test are:  R ED B LOOD C ELLS  W HITE B LOOD C ELLS  P LATELETS

5 1.Red blood cell (RBC) count is a count of the number of red blood cells / L of blood. Normal values are:  Adults: (males): million, (Females): million  Newborns: million  Children: million Polycythemia (high altitudes, physical training, and smokers, polycythemia vera) Anemia

6 2. Hemoglobin (Hgb) measures the amount of hemoglobin in g/dL. Normal Hgb values: Adult: (males): gm; (Females): gm Newborn: gm. Children: gm Mirrors RBC results

7 3. Hematocrit (Hct) measures the percentage of red blood cells in a given volume of whole blood. Normal range: Adult: (males): (males): 45%; (Females): 35% Newborn: 65 % Children: 25 % Mirrors RBC results

8 3. Red blood cell indices Hgb < 12 g/dL or the hematocrit < 37 % Anemia RBC indices are useful in the differential diagnosis of anemia. A.Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of RBCs. Macrocytic in caused by vitamin B12 and folate deficiency anemia. Microcytic in iron deficiency anemia or thalassemias

9 3. Red blood cell indices B. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) is the average amount of hemoglobin per red blood cell. Mirror MCV result. C. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a calculation of the average concentration of hemoglobin inside a red cell. Hypochromia in iron deficiency anemia and in thalassemia. Hyperchromia as in burn patients.

10 3. Red blood cell indices D.Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of the variation of the RBC population. In Pernicious anemia, the amount of variation (anisocytosis) in RBC size causes an increase in the RDW.

11 1.Total white blood cell (WBC) count is a count of the actual number of white blood cells per volume of blood. 2. White blood cell differential looks at the types of white blood cells present. There are five different types: Neutrophils Lymphocytes Monocytes Eosinophils Basophils

12 2.White blood cell differential Measures the actual number of each type of WBC per volume of blood A.Neutrophils Neutrophils account for about 70% of all white blood cells. Mainly respond to a bacterial infection. Neutrophilia in case of bacterial infection. Neutropenia due to impaired production (e.g. after chemotherapy), increased peripheral destruction (with viral infection and autoimmune disease).

13 2.White blood cell differential B. Lymphocytes Lymphocytosis is usually due to acute infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus infection and viral hepatitis, and chronic intracellular bacterial infection (e.g. tuberculosis). C.Monocytes Monocytosis (High monocyte count) is associated with chronic inflammation as tuberculosis.

14 2.White blood cell differential D. Eosinophils Eosinophilia are observed mainly in parasitic infections, asthma, or allergic reaction. C.Basophils May be increased in bone marrow related conditions such as leukemia or lymphoma.

15 Platelets are special cell fragments that are important in blood clotting 1. The platelet count Total number of platelets per volume of blood. Determine whether number is adequate to control bleeding. Decreased when greater numbers used, as with bleeding; with some inherited disorders. 2. Mean platelet volume (MPV) is the average size of blood platelets. Younger platelets are larger than older ones.

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