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Cardiovascular System

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Presentation on theme: "Cardiovascular System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cardiovascular System

2 Functions of Blood Transport of: Regulation of pH and osmosis
Gases, nutrients, waste products Processed molecules Regulatory molecules Regulation of pH and osmosis Maintenance of body temperature Protection against foreign substances Clot formation

3 Composition of Blood

4 Plasma Liquid part of blood
Pale yellow made up of 91% water, 9% other Colloid: Liquid containing suspended substances that don’t settle out Albumin: Important in regulation of water movement between tissues and blood Globulins: Immune system or transport molecules Fibrinogen: Responsible for formation of blood clots

5 Formed Elements Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
White blood cells (leukocytes) Granulocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils Agranulocytes Lymphocytes Monocytes Platelets (thrombocytes)

6 Production of Formed Elements
Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis: Process of blood cell production Stem cells: All formed elements derived from single population Proerythroblasts: Develop into red blood cells Myeloblasts: Develop into basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils Lymphoblasts: Develop into lymphocytes Monoblasts: Develop into monocytes Megakaryoblasts: Develop into platelets

7 Hematopoiesis

8 Erythrocytes Structure Components Function Biconcave, anucleate
Hemoglobin Lipids, ATP, carbonic anhydrase Function Transport oxygen from lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs

9 Hemoglobin Consists of:
4 globin molecules: Transport carbon dioxide (carbonic anhydrase involved), nitric oxide 4 heme molecules: Transport oxygen Iron is required for oxygen transport

10 Erythropoiesis Production of red blood cells
Stem cells proerythroblasts early erythroblasts intermediate late reticulocytes Erythropoietin: Hormone to stimulate RBC production

11 Hemoglobin Breakdown

12 Leukocytes Types Neutrophils: Most common; phagocytic cells destroy bacteria (60%) Eosinophils: Detoxify chemicals; reduce inflammation (4%) Basophils: Alergic reactions; Release histamine, heparin increase inflam. response (1%) Lymphocytes: Immunity 2 types; b & t Cell types. IgG-infection, IgM-microbes, IgA-Resp & GI, IgE- Alergy, IgD-immune response Monocytes: Become macrophages Protect body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debris Movements Ameboid Diapedesis Chemotaxis Passive Immunity Active Immunity Antigen – Antibody

13 Leukocytes

14 Thrombocytes Cell fragments pinched off from megakaryocytes in red bone marrow Important in preventing blood loss Platelet plugs Promoting formation and contraction of clots

15 Hemostasis Arrest of bleeding Events preventing excessive blood loss
Vascular spasm: Vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessels Platelet plug formation Coagulation or blood clotting

16 Platelet Plug Formation

17 Coagulation Stages Pathways Activation of prothrombinase
Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin Pathways Extrinsic Intrinsic

18 Clot Formation

19 Fibrinolysis Clot dissolved by activity of plasmin, an enzyme which hydrolyzes fibrin

20 Blood Grouping Determined by antigens (agglutinogens) on surface of RBCs Antibodies (agglutinins) can bind to RBC antigens, resulting in agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis (rupture) of RBCs Groups ABO and Rh

21 ABO Blood Groups

22 Agglutination Reaction

23 Rh Blood Group First studied in rhesus monkeys Types
Rh positive: Have these antigens present on surface of RBCs Rh negative: Do not have these antigens present Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) Mother produces anti-Rh antibodies that cross placenta and cause agglutination and hemolysis of fetal RBCs

24 Erythroblastosis Fetalis

25 Diagnostic Blood Tests
Type and crossmatch Complete blood count Red blood count Hemoglobin measurement Hematocrit measurement White blood count Differential white blood count Clotting

26 Blood Disorders Erythrocytosis: RBC overabundance
Anemia: Deficiency of hemoglobin Iron-deficiency Pernicious Hemorrhagic Hemolytic Sickle-cell Hemophilia Thrombocytopenia Leukemia Septicemia Malaria Infectious mononucleosis Hepatitis

27 Anemia cont… Pernicious anemia is a type of anemia. The term "anemia" usually refers to a condition in which the blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells. In pernicious anemia, the body can't make enough healthy red blood cells because it doesn't have enough vitamin B12. Without enough vitamin B12, your red blood cells don't divide normally and are too large. They may have trouble getting out of the bone marrow—a sponge-like tissue inside the bones where blood cells are made. Without enough red blood cells to carry oxygen to your body, you may feel tired and weak. Severe or long-lasting pernicious anemia can damage the heart, brain, and other organs in the body. Pernicious anemia also can cause other problems, such as nerve damage, neurological problems (such as memory loss), and digestive tract problems. People who have pernicious anemia also may be at higher risk for weakened bone strength and stomach cancer. Hemolytic anemia occurs when the bone marrow is unable to replace the red blood cells that are being destroyed Leukemia: When you have leukemia, the bone marrow starts to make a lot of abnormal whiteblood cells, called leukemia cells. They don't do the work of normal white blood cells, they grow faster than normal cells, and they don't stop growing when they should. Over time, leukemia cells can crowd out the normal blood cells. This can lead to serious problems such as anemia, bleeding, and infections. Leukemia cells can also spread to the lymph nodes or other organs and cause swelling or pain.

28 Blood disorders Sepsis is an extreme immunesystem response to an infection that has spread throughout the blood and tissues

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