Presentation on theme: "BY: KATRINA APODACA. Daily Vitamin › Used as a supplemental intake of iron and other essential vitamins in order to increase overall health benefits."— Presentation transcript:
Daily Vitamin › Used as a supplemental intake of iron and other essential vitamins in order to increase overall health benefits Prenatal Vitamin › Used during pregnancy.
It is a nutritional deficiency › Children & pre-menopausal woman are the most prone to developing this deficiency Affects about 1/3 of the world population › About 1 billion people suffer with iron deficiency anemia, the most severe stage of iron deficiency
Adults › Have less energy and less ability to work Pregnant Women › Have poorer short-term memory and attention span Adolescents › Have poorer verbal learning and memory Infants › Have more respiratory infections
Stage 1—Depletion of Iron Stores Stage 2—Iron Deficiency without Anemia Stage 3—Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) › All three deficiencies require an additional supplemental intake of iron
Stage 1 Iron is normally stored in the liver, spleen, and bone as ferritin. › Ferritin is the main intracellular iron protein › Ferritin levels are measured and have a direct correlation with the amount of iron stored in the body. In this stage blood measures of hemoglobin and hematocrit usually remain in the normal range.
Stage 2 Iron transport through the body decreases Hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit remain in the normal range › However ranges may be closer to the low end of the normal range
Stage 3 Advanced stage of iron deficiency The absorption of iron is insignificant Hemoglobin synthesis is impaired › Subnormal hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits are the indications of anemia
Formation of hemoglobin & certain enzymes Essential for many enzymes that sustain good health Transport oxygen in the blood to all parts of the body,
Regulate cell growth and differentiation Regulate immune activity Essential for proper functioning of the liver Protects against the actions of free radicals.
PharmacologyManifestations Cellular effects of Iron Target organ damage GI irritation Vomitting, Bloody diarrhea Damage to mucosal cells Leukocytosis & fever Venous pooling & Increase blood viscosity Hypotension Decrease brain perfusion/direct effect of iron Lethary Direct action of iron/ferritinVasodilation Shock Complications of liver failureHypoglycemia Fatty degeneration of renal cells Renal impairment Ferrous mediated peroxidation Pulmonary hemorrhage/edema
Young children are the most common hospitalized for iron poisoning › Minimum that has been reported is a total of only 200mg of iron that has killed a child Equivalent to 7-prenatal vitamins Children with infant siblings are at greater risk › Due to perinatal iron therapy of postpartum mothers
Corrosive Uncouples Oxidative Phosphorylation Free Radical Production Metabolic Acidosis Disruption of Coagulation Proteins
It is a disturbance of acid-base balance › Results in excessive acidity of the blood Directly related symptoms include rapid breathing, confusion and lethargy Can lead to shock or death
a a Phase I : Gastric › 0-6 hrs post › Vomiting, lethargy, explosive diarrhea, asympotomatic, coma/semi-coma, irritability, seizures and hypovolemic shock Phase II: Latency › 6-24 hrs post › Stabilization and subjective improvement › Complete recovery if mild to moderate ingestion Phase III: Shock & Cyanosis › 12-48 hrs post › Distributive shock, vascular collapse, refractory acidosis with cyanosis and fever Phase IV: Hepatic Necrosis › 48-96 hrs post Cardiogenic shock and hepatic failure Complications of liver failure Phase V: Scarring › Pyloric scarring and gastrointestinal obstruction
Deferoxamine › Mechanism of Action Chelating agent that removes excess iron Binds free iron to form ferrioxamine which leads to prevention of absorption and thus enhancing elimination via urine › Dose / Administration Technique Intravenous - ≤15 mg/kg/hr Max - 6 grams per day
Hypotension due to rapid injection Anaphylactoid reaction with rapid injection Hypotension associated with ferrioxamine accumulation in patients with renal impairment
Fever, dysuria, leg cramps, rashes and puritis Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with infusion durations greater than 24 hrs › Severe lung disease › characterized by a diffuse inflammation of lung parenchyma
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