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Sickle Cell Anemia: Considerations On Periodontal Tissue

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1 Sickle Cell Anemia: Considerations On Periodontal Tissue
Gerardo Viadas, RDAEF

2 What is Sickle Cell Anemia?
It’s related with RBC’s of the body. Not all RBC’s are doughnut shaped Some RBC’s are sickle shaped or moon shaped. Crescent shaped RBC’s do not flow with ease via blood vessels. Sickle shaped RBC’s tend to clump together obstructing normal blood flow causing excruciating pain. Sickle shape RBC’s carry abnormal hemoglobin and lack sufficient oxygen.

3 Sickle Cell Anemia In Dentistry
Studies have shown that there is not a direct link between sickle cell anemia and periodontitis. However, sickle cell anemia does cause abnormal blood flow. Avascularity in certain periodontal tissues does cause certain dental conditions a dental hygienist should be aware of. Conditions like: Trabeculation of alveolar bone Osteomyelitis Osteonecrosis

4 Trabeculation Of Alveolar Bone
Bone density is lost in patients with sickle cell anemia. Poor blood flow (avascularity) within the bone. Patients with a history of sickle cell anemia should have their periapical radiographs evaluated thoroughly for an increase in trabeculation. Trabeculation in patients with sickle cell anemia means that their normal bone trabeculae increases in size hence making the bone less dense.

5 Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is a bone infection caused by a bacteria (generally staphylococcus aureus). Poor blood circulation is a major contributor of this condition. Osteomyelitis if not cured can lead to bone death. Dental hygienists should be aware of ulcerated tissue, epithelialized soft tissue, malodor, and exposed bone.

6 Osteonecrosis Literally translates to “bone death”.
Ischemia and or avascularity contributes to this condition. Sickle cell anemic patients must be properly assessed prior to a tooth extraction and or implants.

7 References Zieve, David (2008). Sickle Cell Disease. Simon, Harvey (2009). Sickle Cell Anemia. Benoist, H. M., et al. (2008). Periodontal Conditions In Young Sickle Cell Anemia Senegalese Patients. Hollar, A. Margaret (2009). The Hair-on-End Sign. Faber, T.D., et al. (2005). Fourier Analysis Reveals Increased Trabecular Spacing In Sickle Cell Anemia.

8 Ankyloglossia

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