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Circulatory System. Consists of Heart Blood Vessels Blood.

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Presentation on theme: "Circulatory System. Consists of Heart Blood Vessels Blood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Circulatory System

2 Consists of Heart Blood Vessels Blood

3 Function Transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells Transports carbon dioxide and metabolic waste away from the cells

4 Heart Define –Muscular, hollow organ –Size of a clenched fist –Located in the center of the chest, under the sternum, tipped slightly to the left –Apex is the bottom of the heart

5 Layers of the Heart Endocardium –Epithelial tissue –Lines heart Myocardium –Middle layer –Cardiac muscle tissue Pericardium –Epithelial tissue –Covers outside of heart


7 Septum Wall that divides the heart into left and right

8 Heart Chambers Atria (atrium) 1. Right 3. Left Ventricle 2. Right 4. Left

9 Heart Valves Tricuspid –Separates the right atrium from the right ventricle –Has 3 flaps Mitral –Separates the left atria and the left ventricle –Has 2 flaps

10 Pulmonary valve –Separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery Aortic valve –Separates the left ventricle from the aorta

11 Cardiac Cycle Right and left atriums contract and work together Right and left ventricles contract and work together Systole – period of ventricular contraction Diastole – brief period of rest

12 Blood Pressure 120/70 Diastolic –Bottom number –Heart relaxes as it passively fills with blood Systolic –Top number –Highest pressure in vessels when the ventricles contract

13 Pattern of Circulation Superior and inferior vena cava Right atrium Tricuspid valve Right ventricle Pulmonary valve Pulmonary artery Lungs Pulmonary veins Left atrium Mitral valve Left ventricle Aortic valve Aorta Arteries Arteriole Capillaries Venules Veins Superior and inferior vena cava

14 Electrical Conductive Pathway Function –Electrical impulses in the heart cause the contraction of the muscles –A group of nerve cells that send out an electrical impulse which spreads out over the heart –SA Node Sinoatrial node Located in the right atrium –AV Node Atrioventricular node Located in the septum between the atriums and the ventricles

15 Bundle of HIS –Nerve cells in the septum Right and Left Bundle Branches –Divides off Bundle of HIS Purkinje Fibers –A network of nerve fibers throughout the ventricles


17 EKG - Electrocardiogram Record of the movement of the electrical impulse as it travels through the heart

18 Normal EKG

19 Arrhythmias Abnormal or irregular heart rhythms

20 Defibrillators When the heart is in atrial or ventricular fibrillation, the heart must be shocked with an electrical current to stop the uncoordinated contraction and allow the SA node to regain control


22 Pacemakers A small battery powered device with electrodes that monitors the hearts activity and delivers an electrical impulse to stimulate contraction Fixed and demand Avoid electromagnetic forces like microwaves and cellular phones

23 Pacemakers

24 Blood Vessels Arteries –Carry blood away from the heart –Largest is the aorta –Smaller arteries called arterioles –After the blood leaves the left ventricle the first branch off the aorta is the coronary arteries –Walls are more muscular and elastic

25 Veins Carry blood back to the heart Largest veins – superior and inferior vena cava Veins are thinner and have less muscle tissue

26 Valves Veins contain valves to prevent the backward flow of blood

27 Capillaries One cell thick walls

28 Where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place

29 Capillary Bed


31 Blood Called a tissue because it contains many types of cells 4-6 quarts in the average adult Composed of plasma and formed elements called blood cells Plasma is 90% water with dissolved elements in it

32 Functions Carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells and carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs Nutrients from the digestive tract to cells Metabolic waste from the cells to organs of excretion Carries heat produced by the body Carries hormones to body organs

33 Blood Types O, A, B, AB Rh factor positive or negative Universal Donor O+ Universal Recipient AB+

34 Blood Types Out of 100 people, about: 38 will be O + 7 will be O - 34 will be A + 6 will be A - 8 will be B + 2 will be B - 4 will be AB + 1 will be AB - Who Can Receive Whose Red Blood Cells: O - can only use O - O + can use O + or O - A - can use A - or O - A + can use A +, A -, O + or O - B - can use B - or O - B + can use B +, B -, O + or O - AB - can use AB -, A -, B - or O - AB + can use All Blood Types


36 Agglutination


38 Blood Cells Erythrocytes - Red Blood Cells RBC –Function to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide –Live for 120 days –Shaped like a doughnut –Contains hemoglobin – a blood protein –Amount of hemoglobin gives blood its red color –Carries the O 2 and CO 2

39 Leukocytes White blood cells - WBC Function – fight infection Live 3-9 days Fight infection by phagocytes 5 types of leukocytes

40 Phagocytosis

41 Thrombocytes –Platelets –Cell fragments –Formed in the bone marrow Function –Clotting –Thrombus is a stationary clot –Embolus is a moving clot Live –5 to 9 days

42 Diseases Anemia –Too little RBS’s or hemoglobin or both –Many types Sickle Cell Anemia Aplastic anemia Pernicious anemia Iron deficiency anemia

43 Sickle Cell Anemia Chronic inherited anemia Occurs almost exclusively in African Americans Cells are abnormally shaped like a sickle Crisis occur when they block the vessels and severe pain results

44 Aneurysm A ballooning out or weakness of an artery wall Usually asymptomatic May rupture and hemorrhage and death results Repair is possible if diagnosed early

45 Common Aneurysm Sites Cerebral, Aortic, Abdominal

46 Repair of an Aneurysm

47 Arteriosclerosis Hardening of the arteries Results in the loss of elasticity and contractility Results of aging Causes hypertension

48 Atherosclerosis Deposits of plaque on artery wall If plaque breaks loose circulates as an emboli and

49 Surgical Repair CABG –Coronary artery bypass graft –A vein from the leg or chest is used to go around or “bypass” the blockage

50 Stent Insertion of an expandable coil that Keeps the vessel open Some are medicated

51 Hemophilia Inherited disease that occurs mostly in males but carried by females Lack of a clotting factor (VII most common) Minor cut can cause prolonged bleeding

52 Hypertension Increased blood pressure Caused by a narrowing of the vessels or too much fluid in the vessel Controlled with medication and diet very effective Leading cause of stroke

53 Hypotension Low blood pressure Due to dilation of the blood vessels, shock, or hemorrhage

54 Leukemia Cancer of the bone marrow or lymph tissue Results in a high number of immature WBC”s Treatment –Radiation, chemo, bone marrow transplant

55 Myocardial Infarction Heart Attack Due to blockage in the coronary arteries that cuts off the blood supply to the heart Treatment includes clot busting drugs, CABG, stents

56 Phlebitits Inflammation of a vein If caused by a clot it is called thrombophlebitis

57 Varicose Veins Dilated, swollen veins

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