14 Allele Member of a paired gene Represented by a single letter One allele comes from each parentRepresented by a single letter
15 Dominant & Recessive Alleles Dominant alleles are expressedRecessive alleles are not expressed in the presence of a dominant alleleRecessive alleles are only expressed if both recessive alleles are present
16 Gene A unit of heredity that controls the development of one trait Made of DNAMost genes are composed of two alleles
19 Genotype Genetic make up Represented by alleles TT & Tt are genotypes for tall pea plants
20 Phenotype A trait Genotype determines the phenotype Tall is a phenotype
21 Homologous Chromosomes Chromosomes of the same pairEach homologue will have one allele for a paired geneHomologous chromosomes pair up during meiosisOnly one of each homologue will be in each gamete
31 AA Aa aa Genotypes Phenotypes Probability 1 AA, 2Aa, 1aa 3 Normal 1 AbinoProbability25% for albinism
32 A man & woman are both carriers (heterozygous) for PKU disease A man & woman are both carriers (heterozygous) for PKU disease. What is the chance their children will inherit PKU disease?
33 PP = NormalPp = Normal (carrier)pp = PKU diseasePpPPPpppPp
34 PP Pp pp Genotypes Phenotypes Probability 1 PP, 2Pp, 1pp 3 Normal 1 PKU diseaseProbability25% for PKU disease
35 A man with sickle cell anemia marries a woman who is a carrier A man with sickle cell anemia marries a woman who is a carrier. What is the chance their children will inherit sickle cell anemia?
36 SS = NormalSs = Normal (carrier)ss = Sickle CellSssSssss
37 Genotypes ss Ss Phenotypes Probability 2 Ss, 2ss 2 Normal (carriers) 2 Sickle cellProbability50% for Sickle cell
38 Dwarfism DD = Dwarfism Dd = Dwarfism dd = Normal height Dwarfism = D Dwarf Band
39 A man with heterozygous dwarfism marries a woman who has normal height A man with heterozygous dwarfism marries a woman who has normal height. What is the chance their children will inherit dwarfism? Dwarfism is dominant.
41 Genotypes Dd Phenotypes dd Probability 2 Dd, 2dd 2 Normal 2 Dwarfs 50% for Dwarfism
42 Law of Independent Assortment The inheritance of one gene does not influence the inheritance of another gene if they are on separate chromosomes.The gene for albinism does not affect the gene for dwarfism
43 Dihybrid Cross or Two Traits A heterozygous tall plant that is also heterozygous for yellow seeds is crossed with another plant with the same genotypeTall and yellow seeds are dominant to short and green seeds.
44 What gametes can each parent produce? Tall YellowTall YellowTtYyTtYyTYTYTytYtyTytYty
45 Match gametes on a Punnent Square TYTytYtyTtYyTTYYTTYyTtYYTTyyTtyyttYYttYyttyy9 Tall-YellowTYTytYty3 Tall-Green3 Short-Yellow1 Short-Green
46 A man with blue eyes and normal height marries a woman with heterozygous brown eyes and heterozygous dwarfism. What are the possible phenotypes of their children? Dwarfism & brown eyes are dominant.
47 What gametes can each parent produce? Normal height-BlueDwarf-BrownddbbDdBbdbDBDbdBdb
48 Match gametes on Punnent Square dbDdBbDdbbddBbddbbDwarf-Brown eyesDwarf-blue eyesNormal height-Brown eyesNormal height-Blue eyesDBDbdBdb
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