Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Biology 102 Biotechnology. Lecture outline What is biotechnology? What is biotechnology? Goals of biotechnology Goals of biotechnology How does genetic.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Biology 102 Biotechnology. Lecture outline What is biotechnology? What is biotechnology? Goals of biotechnology Goals of biotechnology How does genetic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology 102 Biotechnology

2 Lecture outline What is biotechnology? What is biotechnology? Goals of biotechnology Goals of biotechnology How does genetic recombination occur in nature? How does genetic recombination occur in nature? How does genetic engineering occur in the lab? How does genetic engineering occur in the lab? Application of biotechnology Application of biotechnology Focus on GMOs (modified crops and animals) Focus on GMOs (modified crops and animals)

3 What is biotechnology? Any commercial use or alteration of organisms, cells and biological molecules to achieve specific, practical goals. Any commercial use or alteration of organisms, cells and biological molecules to achieve specific, practical goals. Examples (in long use) Examples (in long use) Selective breeding Selective breeding Use of yeast to make wine Use of yeast to make wine Current techniques Current techniques Genetic engineering: modification of genetic material to achieve specific goals Genetic engineering: modification of genetic material to achieve specific goals

4 Goals of Biotechnology To understand more about the processes of inheritance and gene expression To understand more about the processes of inheritance and gene expression To provide better understanding & treatment of various diseases, particularly genetic disorders To provide better understanding & treatment of various diseases, particularly genetic disorders To generate economic benefits, including improved plants and animals for agriculture and efficient production of valuable biological molecules To generate economic benefits, including improved plants and animals for agriculture and efficient production of valuable biological molecules Example: Vitamin A fortified engineered rice (Chapter-opening case study) Example: Vitamin A fortified engineered rice (Chapter-opening case study)

5 Methods of Biotechnology: Examples “Older” techniques “Older” techniques Selective breeding Selective breeding Use of yeast to make wine Use of yeast to make wine Current techniques Current techniques Genetic engineering: modification of genetic material to achieve specific goals Genetic engineering: modification of genetic material to achieve specific goals

6 How does DNA Recombination occur in nature? Sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction Bacterial recombination Bacterial recombination Transfer by viruses Transfer by viruses

7 1 µ m Recombination in Bacteria (a)(b)(c) Bacterium Chromosome Plasmid Plasmid replicates in cytoplasm DNA fragment incorporated into chromosome Plasmid transferred to new host DNA fragments transferred to new host Plasmids allow bacteria to grow in novel environments

8 Transfer of genes by viruses

9 Genetic engineering in the lab Create a “DNA” library Create a “DNA” library Fragments from entire genome end up in different bacterial colonies Fragments from entire genome end up in different bacterial colonies Most fragments will not end up being useful Most fragments will not end up being useful Some may have the gene(s) you want Some may have the gene(s) you want Getting the gene you want is like finding a needle in a haystack! Getting the gene you want is like finding a needle in a haystack! First step: Cutting up the DNA First step: Cutting up the DNA Gives you workable fragments that can be incorporated into bacteria Gives you workable fragments that can be incorporated into bacteria

10 Cutting DNA with restriction enzymes Restriction enzymes cut DNA in specific locations Restriction enzymes cut DNA in specific locations Example: The restriction enzyme EcoRI Example: The restriction enzyme EcoRI recognizes the sequence GAATTC recognizes the sequence GAATTC Cuts the sequence in half anywhere encountered Cuts the sequence in half anywhere encountered Different restriction enzymes cut in different places Different restriction enzymes cut in different places

11 Creating a DNA library Creating a DNA library Note that plasmid vector and desired DNA are cut with same restriction enzyme, so complementary base pairing occurs Note that plasmid vector and desired DNA are cut with same restriction enzyme, so complementary base pairing occurs Create different bacterial colonies with different fragments Create different bacterial colonies with different fragments

12 Finding the genes of interest Restriction length polymorphisms Restriction length polymorphisms Tell you whether two individuals are the same or different for a particular fragment in your library Tell you whether two individuals are the same or different for a particular fragment in your library IF individuals differ for sequence recognized by the restriction enzyme, then they will be cut differently IF individuals differ for sequence recognized by the restriction enzyme, then they will be cut differently Search for these polymorphisms for people known to differ for different traits Search for these polymorphisms for people known to differ for different traits

13 Gel electrophoresis

14 DNA fingerprinting

15 Finding genes of interest (cont.) Use a DNA probe: short sequence of single-strand DNA that is part of the sequence of interest Use a DNA probe: short sequence of single-strand DNA that is part of the sequence of interest Useful only if you already know the sequence you are looking for! Useful only if you already know the sequence you are looking for! Can use genes from one organism to find similar genes in another organism Can use genes from one organism to find similar genes in another organism

16 Identify genes on basis of gene product (i.e. the protein they make) Identify genes on basis of gene product (i.e. the protein they make) Can transcribe and translate the gene inside the host bacterium Can transcribe and translate the gene inside the host bacterium Finding genes of interest (cont.)

17 Applications of biotechnology DNA fingerprinting (identification) DNA fingerprinting (identification) Transgenic crops and animals (GMOs) Transgenic crops and animals (GMOs) Production of therapeutic proteins Production of therapeutic proteins Models of human genetic diseases created in other organisms Models of human genetic diseases created in other organisms Genetic testing Genetic testing Gene therapy Gene therapy Treatment for SCID Treatment for SCID


Download ppt "Biology 102 Biotechnology. Lecture outline What is biotechnology? What is biotechnology? Goals of biotechnology Goals of biotechnology How does genetic."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google