Presentation on theme: "Anemia refers to a low red blood cell count. Hallmark symptoms include fatigue and pallor (pale skin). Mild forms of anemia may go undiagnosed."— Presentation transcript:
Anemia refers to a low red blood cell count. Hallmark symptoms include fatigue and pallor (pale skin). Mild forms of anemia may go undiagnosed. Anemia is also a common complication of pregnancy and it is important to diagnose it in pregnancy, because of the high risk to the mother of maternal bleeding in childbirth. There are various types of anemia and causes of anemia.fatiguepallorcomplication of pregnancytypes of anemiacauses of anemia
5 million /mm in adult males. 4,5 million /mm in adult females. Hemoglobin content(Hb) 15 gram/100ml blood in adults(on average) 16 gm/100ml blood in adults males 14 gm in adults females
Decreased RBCs cause anemia. Increase RBCs cause polycythemia.
Anemia is a common blood disorder, which is caused Decrease RBCs count or Hb content or both below the normal range for age and sex
(1)normocytic normochromic anemia a-RBCs size is normal (normocytic) b-amount of Hb in each RBCs is normal (normochromic).
May due to
( 2)acute blood loss (hemorrhagic anemia) e.g. sever hemorrhage. (3)bone marrow depression (aplastic anemia) May be due to: 1-excessive exposure to x-ray 2-some vial infection 3-chemical toxins e.g. some antibiotics and chemotherapy 4-invasion of bone marrow by malignant cell
(a plastic anemia)
(2)micorocytic hypochromic anemia:(iron deficiency anemia) a-RBCs size is less than normal(microcytic) b-amount of Hb in each RBCs is less than normal (hypochromic)
Clinical Manifestations: Dizziness Headache Coldness in the hands and feet Pale skin Chest pain Dyspnea,Chest pain. Weakness, fatigue, general malaise. Pallor skin and mucous membranes. Jaundice.
الحمد لله الدى عافانى مما ابتلاك به و فضلنى على كثير من خلقه تفضيلا )
Diagnostic Tests: 1-to diagnosis that if there is anemia:- a)RBCs count b)hemoglobin content. C)hematocrite value (packed volume) 2-to diagnosis the cause of anemia:- a)blood film to see the shape of RBCs b )microcytic hypochromic anemia is essentially due to iron deficiency which can be confirmed by measuring plasma iron.
Treatments for Anemia Always seek professional medical advice about any treatment or change in treatment plans. Iron supplements High-iron diet Healthy diet Intravenous iron - mainly for those on kidney dialysis Vitamin B12 supplements Folic acid supplements EPO injections - if anemia from an EPO deficiency Blood transfusions CopperCopper - possibly used for related copper deficiency Iron Vitamin B6Vitamin B6 - possibly used for related vitamin B6 deficiency Vitamin B12Vitamin B12 - possibly used for related vitamin B12 deficiency Treatment of anemia is very much dependant upon the type, cause and severity of the anemia,
Medication therapy: -epinephrine,antihistamine may be given to prevent recurrent of reaction and to relive urticaria. -Aminophylline may administer if indicated. -Volume expanders and vasopressor agent may used to maintain blood pressure.
Nursing diagnosis -Ineffective tissue perfusion related to inadequate blood volume or hematocrit. -Impaired physical mobility related to tissue ischemia, generalized weakness -Imbalance nutrition :Less than body requirements related to inadequate intake of essential nutrients.
- High risk for infection related to poor tissue oxygenation. -Fatigue related to the blood hemoglobin decreased and diminished oxygen-carrying capacity. -Alternated family process related to -the patient with chronic disease -Anxiety related to decrease the knowledge about his disease.
nursing intervention -Maintaining adequate perfusion by monitor vital signs, given medication as indicated -administer supplemental oxygen, transfusion and intravenous fluid as ordered. -Encourage a well-balanced diet high in protein,calories,fruit and vegetables. - Food highin iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid
- oral iron should be given in divided doses between meals, Acidify fruits or juice should be taken within medication that aid in absorption. - Assist the patient to do proper exercise and establish balance between activity and rest. -Use safety precautions to prevent falls from poor coordination and weakness. - Teach the patient and family about the disease and the purpose of the prescribed medication.
Conclusion: The nurse should be aware of the etiology of anemia. Careful assessment and monitoring are essential, especially when anemia results from acute blood loss. The nurse consistently monitors the patient's tolerance for daily activities and the dietary intake and nutritional status. The nurse is responsible for educating the patient and family to Understanding the disease process and the cause of anemia as well as diet and medications.
text book of medical- surgicaL Nursing Physiology of blood By prof. Ahmed Ibrahim Agamy