Presentation on theme: "BLOOD Well Come PROF. Dr. RAFI AHMED GHORI DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE"— Presentation transcript:
1 BLOOD Well Come PROF. Dr. RAFI AHMED GHORI DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE LIAQUAT UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL & HEALTH SCIENCE JAMSHORO
2 BLOOD INTRODUCTION BLOOD CONSISTS OF: Red Cells White cells Platelets Plasma, in which above elements are suspended.
3 BLOOD FORMATION OF BLOOD: 2nd week→blood islands in yolk sac. 3rd week→migrate to liver and spleen chief sites of erythropoisis5th month → bone marrow-MED. Haemopoisis. (erythropoisis).At birth→ marrow of nearly every bone.At adult life→ confined to end of long bones→axial skelaton, ribs and skull.
4 BLOOD FORMATION OF BLOOD: Diff. Into mature cells Path. processes→ extramedullary haemopoisis in liver & spleen.NB.All peripheral blood cells are derived from single stem cell (pleuripotent steam cell),Stems cellsSelf renerwalDiff. Into mature cells
6 BLOODNB.Ist detectable CFU IS CFU-S(colony forms unit spleen, which gives rise to CFU-GEMM (i.e. Granulocyte, Erythroid cells, Monocytes, Megakaryocytes).
7 BLOOD Haemopoietic growth factors: All factors are glycoprotein Factors include:- Erythropoietin- Colony Stimulating factors (CSF)- Interleukins (IL)Gene for most of them is 5 chromosome. And many growth factors are produced by recombinant DNA tech. e.g. GM-CSF after B.M. transplantation to accelerate neutrophil recovery.
8 Erythroiten used for anemia in CRF B. lymphocyteNproerythoblastPre BTotipotent stem cellPluripotent myeloid stem cellsPre IMegakeryoblastBlast cellsMyeloblastPromytocyteMonoblastT. lymphocyteEarly normoInt.NormoLat.NormoRecti.RectRed cellProliferative phaseMaturation phaseReleased B. marrowEMPlatBErythroiten used for anemia in CRF
9 BLOOD ANEMIA: CLASSIFICATION OF ANEMIA: Blood loss Defined as a state in which the blood Hb level is below the normal range for the patient’s age and sex.CLASSIFICATION OF ANEMIA:Blood loss- Acute- Chronic inadequate production of normal RBC by Bone Marrow (hypoplasia, aplasia)- Excessive destruction of RBCS (Haemolysis)
20 BLOOD Anemia due to inadequate production of Red cells: CAUSES:Deficiency of essential factors:- Iron, vit.12 Folate.Toxic factors:- Inflammatory disease, Hepatic or Renal dis.,Dgs.Endocrine Diseases:- Hypo or Hyperthyroidism, hypopittutism hypogonad:↓erythryroitin.
21 BLOOD Anemia due to inadequate production of Red cells: CAUSES:Invasion of Bone Marrow- Leukemia, sec. ca., fibrosis.Disorders of developing Red cells.- Sideroblastic anemia, Neoplastic disorders of erythropoisic, other iodiopathic refactory anemia, heridatory disorders of Hb. Synthesis (Thallasemia)Failure of stem cells.- Hypoplastic & aplastic anemia.
22 BLOOD IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA CAUSES:Poor intakeDecreased absorption↑ demandsBlood loss
24 BLOOD IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA CLINICAL FEATURES:Symptomatology of iron deficeincy is mainly that of anemia. However there are charachteristic features, these are mainly epitelial changes produced by inadequate iron in the cells.- Brittle nails- Spoon-shaped nails (koilonychias)- Atrophy of the papillae of the tongue.
26 BLOOD IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA CLINICAL FEATURES:Angular stomatitisBrittle hairsA syndrome of dysphagia and glossitis (Plummer-Vinson ro Peter-Brown-Kelly syndrome).Rarely in severe deficiency parotid enlargement, spleenomegaly and failure to grow.
27 BLOOD GOOD CLINICAL HISTORY Dietary intake Self Medication –NSAIDS. Blood in faeces (Haemrrhoid or ca. lower Bowl)P/R examination.
28 BLOOD ORAL PARENTERAL Fe sulphate 200 mg/100 Iron sorbital 1.5mg Per kg/body wt dailyl/m, never give.