Presentation on theme: "BLOOD Well Come PROF. Dr. RAFI AHMED GHORI DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE"— Presentation transcript:
1BLOOD Well Come PROF. Dr. RAFI AHMED GHORI DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE LIAQUAT UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL & HEALTH SCIENCE JAMSHORO
2BLOOD INTRODUCTION BLOOD CONSISTS OF: Red Cells White cells Platelets Plasma, in which above elements are suspended.
3BLOOD FORMATION OF BLOOD: 2nd week→blood islands in yolk sac. 3rd week→migrate to liver and spleen chief sites of erythropoisis5th month → bone marrow-MED. Haemopoisis. (erythropoisis).At birth→ marrow of nearly every bone.At adult life→ confined to end of long bones→axial skelaton, ribs and skull.
4BLOOD FORMATION OF BLOOD: Diff. Into mature cells Path. processes→ extramedullary haemopoisis in liver & spleen.NB.All peripheral blood cells are derived from single stem cell (pleuripotent steam cell),Stems cellsSelf renerwalDiff. Into mature cells
6BLOODNB.Ist detectable CFU IS CFU-S(colony forms unit spleen, which gives rise to CFU-GEMM (i.e. Granulocyte, Erythroid cells, Monocytes, Megakaryocytes).
7BLOOD Haemopoietic growth factors: All factors are glycoprotein Factors include:- Erythropoietin- Colony Stimulating factors (CSF)- Interleukins (IL)Gene for most of them is 5 chromosome. And many growth factors are produced by recombinant DNA tech. e.g. GM-CSF after B.M. transplantation to accelerate neutrophil recovery.
8Erythroiten used for anemia in CRF B. lymphocyteNproerythoblastPre BTotipotent stem cellPluripotent myeloid stem cellsPre IMegakeryoblastBlast cellsMyeloblastPromytocyteMonoblastT. lymphocyteEarly normoInt.NormoLat.NormoRecti.RectRed cellProliferative phaseMaturation phaseReleased B. marrowEMPlatBErythroiten used for anemia in CRF
9BLOOD ANEMIA: CLASSIFICATION OF ANEMIA: Blood loss Defined as a state in which the blood Hb level is below the normal range for the patient’s age and sex.CLASSIFICATION OF ANEMIA:Blood loss- Acute- Chronic inadequate production of normal RBC by Bone Marrow (hypoplasia, aplasia)- Excessive destruction of RBCS (Haemolysis)
20BLOOD Anemia due to inadequate production of Red cells: CAUSES:Deficiency of essential factors:- Iron, vit.12 Folate.Toxic factors:- Inflammatory disease, Hepatic or Renal dis.,Dgs.Endocrine Diseases:- Hypo or Hyperthyroidism, hypopittutism hypogonad:↓erythryroitin.
21BLOOD Anemia due to inadequate production of Red cells: CAUSES:Invasion of Bone Marrow- Leukemia, sec. ca., fibrosis.Disorders of developing Red cells.- Sideroblastic anemia, Neoplastic disorders of erythropoisic, other iodiopathic refactory anemia, heridatory disorders of Hb. Synthesis (Thallasemia)Failure of stem cells.- Hypoplastic & aplastic anemia.
22BLOOD IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA CAUSES:Poor intakeDecreased absorption↑ demandsBlood loss
24BLOOD IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA CLINICAL FEATURES:Symptomatology of iron deficeincy is mainly that of anemia. However there are charachteristic features, these are mainly epitelial changes produced by inadequate iron in the cells.- Brittle nails- Spoon-shaped nails (koilonychias)- Atrophy of the papillae of the tongue.
26BLOOD IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA CLINICAL FEATURES:Angular stomatitisBrittle hairsA syndrome of dysphagia and glossitis (Plummer-Vinson ro Peter-Brown-Kelly syndrome).Rarely in severe deficiency parotid enlargement, spleenomegaly and failure to grow.
27BLOOD GOOD CLINICAL HISTORY Dietary intake Self Medication –NSAIDS. Blood in faeces (Haemrrhoid or ca. lower Bowl)P/R examination.
28BLOOD ORAL PARENTERAL Fe sulphate 200 mg/100 Iron sorbital 1.5mg Per kg/body wt dailyl/m, never give.