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Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Historia de Solaris SunOS 1.0 basado en BSD en 1982 SunOS 2.0 sistema de archivos virtual, RPC, NIS y NFS SunOS 4.0.

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Presentation on theme: "Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Historia de Solaris SunOS 1.0 basado en BSD en 1982 SunOS 2.0 sistema de archivos virtual, RPC, NIS y NFS SunOS 4.0."— Presentation transcript:

1 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Historia de Solaris SunOS 1.0 basado en BSD en 1982 SunOS 2.0 sistema de archivos virtual, RPC, NIS y NFS SunOS 4.0 sistema de memoria virtual mejorado SunOS 4.1.3 asymetric multiprocessor Solaris 2.0 VFS 1992 Solaris 2.3 i386 Solaris 7 64-bit

2 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Tareas de básicas de administración Manejo de usuarios Manejo de la seguridad del sistema Uso de los recursos Configuración de los dispositivos Instalación del Sistema operativo - parches Instalación de software adicional Copias de seguridad

3 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos What Are User Accounts and Groups? Component Description User nameA name that a user uses to log in to a system (also known as a login name). PasswordA secret combination of characters that a user must enter with a user name to gain access to a system. User's home directoryA directory that is usually the user's current directory at login. It typically contains most of the user's files. User initialization filesShell scripts that control how the user's working environment is set up when a user logs in to a system.

4 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos /etc/passwd The fields in the passwd file are separated by colons and contain the following information: username:password:uid:gid:comment: home-directory:login-shell

5 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Default passwd File Entries User NameUser IDDescription root 0 Superuser account daemon 1 Umbrella system daemon associated with updating calendars, and so forth bin 2 Administrative daemon associated with running system binaries to perform some routine system task sys 3 Administrative daemon associated with system logging or updating files in temporary directories adm 4 Administrative daemon associated with system logging lpd 71 Line printer daemon uucp 5 uucp daemon nuucp 6 uucp daemon listen 37 Network listener daemon nobody 60001 Anonymous user account, assigned by an NFS server when a request is received from an unauthorized root user. The nobody user account is assigned to software processes that do not need nor should have any special permissions. noaccess 60002 Account assigned to a user or a process that needs access to a system through some application but without actually logging in. nobody4 65534 SunOS 4.0 or 4.1 version of nobody user account.

6 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Default passwd File root:x:0:1:Super-User:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:3:3::/: adm:x:4:4:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uuci co listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls: nobody:x:60001:60001:Nobody:/: noaccess:x:60002:60002:No Access User:/: nobody4:x:65534:65534:SunOS 4.x Nobody:/:

7 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos /etc/shadow The fields in the shadow file are separated by colons and contain the following information: username:password:lastchg:min:max: warn:inactive:expire

8 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Fields in the shadow File Field NameDescription usernameContains the user or login name. password Might contain the following entries: a 13-character encrypted user password; the string *LK*, which indicates an inaccessible account; or the string NP, which indicates no password for the account. lastchgIndicates the number of days between January 1, 1970, and the last password modification date. minContains the minimum number of days required between password changes. maxContains the maximum number of days the password is valid before the user is prompted to specify a new password. inactiveContains the number of days a user account can be inactive before being locked. expireContains the absolute date when the user account expires. Past this date, the user cannot log in to the system.

9 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos /etc/group The fields in the group file are separated by colons and contain the following information: group-name:group-password:gid:user-list

10 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Reserved UID Numbers User ID NumbersLogin AccountsReserved For... 0 - 99 root, daemon, bin, sys, etc. System accounts 100 - 2147483647Regular usersGeneral purpose accounts 60001 nobody Unauthenticated users 60002 noaccess Compatibility with Solaris 2.0 and compatible versions and SVR4 releases

11 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Working with user accounts Add –useradd Modify –usermod Del –userdel

12 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Working with group accounts Add –groupadd Modify –groupmod Del –groupdel

13 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Using Large User IDs and Group IDs Previous Solaris software releases used 32-bit data types to contain the user IDs (UIDs) and group IDs (GIDs), but UIDs and GIDs were constrained to a maximum useful value of 60000. Starting with the Solaris 2.5.1 release and compatible versions, the limit on UID and GID values has been raised to the maximum value of a signed integer, or 2147483647. UIDs and GIDs over 60000 do not have full functionality and are incompatible with many Solaris features, so avoid using UIDs or GIDs over 60000.

14 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Passwords combination of six to eight letters, numbers, or special characters Good choices for passwords include: –Phrases (beammeup) –Nonsense words made up of the first letters of every word in a phrase (swotrb for SomeWhere Over The RainBow) –Words with numbers or symbols substituted for letters (sn00py for snoopy) Do not use these choices for passwords: –Your name, forwards, backwards, or jumbled –Names of family members or pets –Car license numbers –Telephone numbers –Social Security numbers –Employee numbers –Names related to a hobby or interest –Seasonal themes, such as Santa in December –Any word in the dictionary

15 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Home Directories /export/home/username –AutoFS /home/username

16 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Practice

17 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos User's Work Environment Each login shell has its own user initialization file (or files) When a user logs in to a system, the user's work environment is determined by initialization files that are defined by the user's startup shell, such as the C, Korn, or Bourne shell

18 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos User's Work Environment ShellUser Initialization FilePurpose Bourne $HOME/.profile Defines user's environment at login C $HOME/.cshrc Defines user's environment for all C shells; invoked after login shell $HOME/.login Defines user's environment at login Korn $HOME/.profile Defines user's environment at login $HOME/$ENV Defines user's environment at login in the file; specified by the Korn shell's ENV environment variable

19 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos Default User Initialization Files ShellDefault File C /etc/skel/local.login /etc/skel/local.cshrc Bourne or Korn /etc/skel/local.profile

20 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos User Initialization Files ShellFiles Created C The /etc/skel/local.cshrc and the /etc/skel/local.login files are copied into the user's home directory and are renamed.cshrc and.login. Bourne and Korn The /etc/skel/local.profile file is copied into the user's home directory and renamed.profile. When the accounts are created with Admintool:

21 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos General user’s environment files $HOME/.cshrc initial commands for each csh $HOME/.hushlogin suppresses login messages $HOME/.login user's login commands for csh $HOME/.profile user's login commands for sh and ksh $HOME/.rhosts private list of trusted hostname/username combinations /etc/motd message-of-the-day /etc/nologin message displayed to users attempting to login during machine shutdown /etc/passwd password file /etc/profile system-wide sh and ksh login commands /etc/shadow list of users' encrypted passwords

22 Universidad del Cauca Red de Datos /var/adm/lastlog time of last login /var/adm/utmp accounting /var/adm/wtmp accounting /var/mail/your-name mailbox for user your-name General files


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