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Parvoviruses Chapter 31. Properties of Parvoviruses Structure Icosahedral 18-26 nm diameter Single-stranded DNA, 5.6 kb Two proteins Nonenveloped Classification.

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Presentation on theme: "Parvoviruses Chapter 31. Properties of Parvoviruses Structure Icosahedral 18-26 nm diameter Single-stranded DNA, 5.6 kb Two proteins Nonenveloped Classification."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parvoviruses Chapter 31

2 Properties of Parvoviruses Structure Icosahedral nm diameter Single-stranded DNA, 5.6 kb Two proteins Nonenveloped Classification Parvoviridae (vertebrates) Parvovirus Erythrovirus Dependovirus (requires helper virus, such as an adenovirus) Densovirinae (insects)

3 Replication Attachment and entry Translocation of viral DNA into nucleus Transcription and translation of viral nonstructural protein and nucleocapsid DNA replication Virus assembly (nucleus) Release from the cell through lysis Properties of Parvoviruses

4 Parvovirus Infections in Humans Diseases Fifth disease (cutaneous rash) Transient aplastic crisis (severe acute anemia) Pure red cell aplasia (chronic anemia) Hydrops fetalis (fatal fetal anemia) B19 virus most common Fifth Disease Targets red blood cell progenitors Pain in joints Results in lysis of cells, thus depleting source of mature red cells Anemia ensues Rarely fatal and without complications Fifth Disease (parvovirus B19)

5 Transient aplastic crisis B19 infection of those with other hemolytic anemias Sickle cell disease Thalassemias Can complicate crises Sometimes fatal Infection of immunodeficient patients Can cause persistent infection in bone marrow Suppress red cell maturation Leads to anemia Infection during pregnancy Can cause fetal anemia Usually not fatal to fetus Parvovirus Infections in Humans

6 Laboratory Diagnosis PCR is most sensitive Most useful during viremia Otherwise, requires tissue biopsy or bone marrow tap Serological testing for IgM Determines recent infection IgG testing is not informative

7 Epidemiology B19 virus is common and widespread Most adults have been infected Most infections are subclinical IgG is detectable in most healthy people Sporadic outbreaks, usually among children, occur each year Transmission from patient to health care staff is not uncommon Role in nosocomial transmission to other patients Treatment Address symptoms Transfusions for serious anemic crises Commercially-available neutralizing IgG (passive immunization) Prevention and control No vaccine available for human parvoviruses Good hygienic practices mitigate transmission

8 Canine Parvovirus Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) appears to be a mutant strain of feline parvovirus Some breeds are more sensitive to CPV infection The virus is considered ubiquitous in the environment It is a hardy virus Can survive for extended periods on fomites Transmitted through oral-fecal route Symptoms: dehydration, vomiting, bloody diarrhea Vaccine is available


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