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Vitamins, Minerals, and Water

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1 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water
Chapter 7 Section 2 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water

2 Bell Ringer Write the names of the vitamins and minerals you have heard of and the kinds of foods in which they can be found.

3 Section 2 Vitamins, Minerals, & Water
Key Terms: Vitamin: A class of nutrients that contain carbon & are needed in small amounts to maintain health & allow growth. Mineral: A class of nutrients that are chemical elements that are needed for certain body processes, such as enzyme activity & bone formation Nutrient deficiency: The state of not having enough of a nutrient to maintain good health. 3

4 Fat-soluble vitamins Vitamin A, D, E, & K
They dissolve in fat & most can be stored in fat tissue & remain in the body for a long time. 4

5 Fat-Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A
Milk, yellow & orange fruits, eggs, leafy vegetables Keeps eyes & skin healthy Strong bones & teeth Vitamin D Exposure to sun Fish, liver, egg yolk, fortified milk 5 Promotes absorption of calcium & phosphorus

6 Vitamin E Vegetable oils, beans, peas, nuts, dark-green vegetables, whole grains Protects cell membranes from damage by reactive oxygen (free radicals) Vitamin K Leafy vegetables such as spinach & broccoli, produced in the intestine by bacteria 6 Acts in blood clotting

7 Water-soluble Vitamins
The eight B vitamins and vitamin C Needed to release energy from carbohydrates, fats, & proteins 7

8 Vitamin B-1 (Thiamin) Most vegetables, pork, liver, beans, whole grains & cereals, nuts Produce energy from carbs, helps the nervous system function Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) Milk, meat, eggs, whole grains, green leafy veg pasta Needed to produce energy from carbs, healthy skin Vitamin B-3 (Niacin) Meat, liver, fish, whole-grains, peas & beans, seeds 8 Needed to produce energy from carbs, nervous system & healthy skin

9 Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic acid) Whole grains Meat, liver Broccoli, eggs, nuts, peas, beans Needed to produce energy from carbohydrates, fat & protein Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine) Whole grains, meat, liver, fish, bananas, green leafy vegetables, peas & beans 9 Protein metabolism, production of hemoglobin in red blood cells, healthy nervous system

10 Vitamin B-12 (Cobalamin) Meat, liver, dairy products, eggs Necessary for forming cells (including red blood) & healthy nervous system Folate (Folic acid or folacin) Green veg, liver, whole grains, peas, OJ 10 Needed for forming cells (including red blood), helps prevent birth defects

11 Biotin Liver, yogurt, egg yolk, peas, beans, nuts Necessary for metabolism Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Citrus fruits, melons, strawberries, green vegetables, peppers 11 Promotes healthy gums & teeth, healing of wounds, absorption of iron, an antioxidant to protect cells from damage

12 Minerals More than twenty minerals needed in small amounts to maintain good health 12

13 Calcium Milk, dairy products, dark- green, leafy vegetables, tofu, legumes, shellfish, bony fish Development & maintenance of bones & teeth, transmission of nerve impulses, muscle coordination, blood clotting Chromium Meat, dairy products, whole grains, herbs, nuts, seeds 13 Helps regulate blood sugar

14 Copper Liver, shellfish, peas, beans, nuts, seeds Needed for production of bone & red blood cells & absorption of iron Fluoride Tea, fish, fluoridated toothpaste & water 14 Helps strengthen tooth enamel, helps in prevention of cavities

15 Iodine Iodized salt, seafood Needed for production of thyroid hormones & normal cell function Iron Red meat, whole & enriched greens, dark-green vegetables, peas, beans, & eggs 15 Necessary for production of hemoglobin

16 Magnesium Milk, dairy products, green, leafy vegetables, peas, beans Needed for bone growth, metabolism, & muscle contraction Potassium Meat, poultry, fish, bananas, oranges, dried fruits, potatoes, green, leafy vegetables, peas, beans 16 Needed for maintenance of fluid balance, transmission of nerve impulses & muscle contraction

17 Phosphorus Cereals, meats, milk, poultry Needed for bone formation & cell reproduction Selenium Tuna & other seafood, whole grains, liver, meat, eggs Needed for healthy heart function, antioxidant action, healthy thyroid Sodium Table salt, high-salt meats (ham), processed foods, dairy products, soy sauce 17 regulation of water balance in cells & tissues, transmission of nerve impulses

18 Sulfur Meat, milk, eggs, nuts, grains Needed for protein metabolism Zinc Seafood, meat, milk, poultry, eggs 18 Needed for growth & healing, and for production of digestive enzymes

19 Mineral Deficiencies Calcium
Painful muscle cramps, retarded growth in children, osteoporosis Copper Anemia, bone & cardiovascular changes Iodine Enlargement of thyroid gland (goiter), retardation of growth & brain development Iron Anemia, weakness, immune system impairment Magnesium Nervous system disturbances 19

20 Sodium Muscle cramps, loss of appetite Zinc Retardation of growth, under-development of sex glands, immune disorders, slow wound healing 20

21 How much do we need? Sodium: 2,400 milligrams a day (1 ¼ tsp), too much: high blood pressure: heart disease, stroke, kidney failure Calcium: 1,300 milligrams per day (1 cup milk=300 milligrams) 21

22 Water 60% of your body is water
Is necessary for every function of your body. Lose water through: excretion of urine & solid wastes, evaporation through breathing, & sweating Extra water cannot be stored Need 8 glasses a day 22

23 Why water is important 1. Transports nutrients & oxygen through the body & helps get rid of wastes 2. Provides the proper environment for the body’s chemical reactions to occur. 3. It helps regulate body temperature. 23

24 Why is dehydration dangerous?
1. Mild dehydration interferes with mental & physical performance. 2. Early symptoms of dehydration: Thirst, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, dry eyes & mouth, dark-colored urine 3. Severe dehydration: Nausea, difficulty concentrating, confusion, disorientation Extremely severe: death 24

25 Review 1. Name the class of nutrient that contain carbon & are needed in small amounts to maintain health and allow growth. (vitamin) 2. Identify the term for “chemical elements that are needed for enzyme activity & bone formation.” A. Vitamin B. Protein C. Mineral D. Water (C)

26 3. Name the term that means “not having enough of a nutrient to maintain good health.”
(nutrient deficiency) 4. List the functions of Vitamin A, C, and D (A = Healthy eyes & skin, strong bones & teeth C= Healthy gums & teeth, promotes healing, absorption of iron, antioxidant to protect cells from damage D=absorption of calcium & phosphorus, strong bones & teeth 26

27 5. Name the nutrient that may be related to each of the following:
A. Iron-deficiency anemia (iron) B. Osteoporosis (calcium) C. Dehydration (water) D. High blood pressure (sodium)

28 6. Identify why the following people are at risk of dehydration: Sara, who just ran a marathon & Jeff, who has been vomiting (Running marathons depletes the body of water because you don’t have time to drink much water & vomiting results in water loss as well as reduced intake) 7. Identify some non-dairy sources of calcium. (green, leafy vegetables such as spinach & broccoli, calcium fortified foods such as breads & orange juice.) 28

29 8. Give some possible reasons for the decrease in calcium intake by teens.
(low-fat diets avoiding dairy foods, drinking more soda and less milk can lower the intake) 29

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