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Leadership Charlotte M. Karam, PhD

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1 Leadership Charlotte M. Karam, PhD
Assistant Professor of Organizational Behaviour Organizational Psychologist OSB 349 Ext 3764 © Dr Karam

2 Introduction The leader within (Intra-personal) The art of leadership (Inter-personal)
M O D U L E C O V E R A G E:

3 1. To introduce the participants to more recent conceptualizations of leadership that involves both soft and hard skills. 2. To introduce the participants to leadership development trends that emphasize a combination of both intra-personal and inter-personal elements. 3. To begin to foster and understanding of the importance of Emotional Intelligence for better leadership on the intra-personal, inter-personal, and team levels 4. To introduce examples of techniques for effective delegation and empowerment M O D U L E O B J E C T I V E S:

4 I n t r o d u c t I o n Who am I Informal Contract Leadership W E L C O M E

5 Overview of Leadership Module
This workshop introduces the concept of Leadership as rooted within Emotional Intelligence. The focus will be on the importance of the “intra” and “inter” personal skills in effectively leading others and organizations. The workshop relies on the principles of personality, organizational and applied social psychology as the basis for fostering better self-awareness, self-exploration, and interpersonal processes with the strategic aim of developing leadership skills. The leader within (Intra-personal) The art of leadership (Inter-personal)

6 In a word…. how do you Lead your practice??

7 Leadership Defined

8 Definition of Leadership
An influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes and outcomes that reflect their shared purposes.

9 Paradigm Shift There has been a Paradigm Shift in the way we think about Leadership A shift in the shared mindset about leadership that represents a fundamental way of thinking about, perceiving, and understanding the exchange between Leaders and Members

10 The New Reality for Leadership
CLASSIC Paradigm Stability Control Competition Uniformity Self-centered Hero NEW Paradigm Change/crisis mgt. Empowerment Collaboration Diversity Higher ethical purpose Humble Something else widely documented … Stability

11 Reasons for Leader Derailment
Acting with an insensitive, abrasive, intimidating, bullying style Being cold, aloof, arrogant Betraying personal trust Being overly ambitious and self-centered Having specific performance problems in practice Overmanaging, being unable to delegate or build a team Being unable to select good subordinates The leader within (Intra-personal) The art of leadership (Inter-personal)

12 T h e l e a d e r w I t h I n ( I n t r a – p e r s o n a l ) Self-exploration: A better understanding of the self and the impact our behaviors has on others P A R T O N E

13 The Whole You HARD PROFILE SOFT PROFILE WORK Accounting Investing
Hiring Networking Getting along with others Having appropriate manners LIFE Financial Provider Budgeting Having a job Fun-time Caring/nurturing Ability to take the time to relax

14 Leaders are those who naturally inspire confidence, loyalty, and hard work from others (Christie, 2008) One of the most reliable indicators & predictors of true leadership is an individual’s ability to find meaning in negative events and learn from even the most trying circumstances (Bennis & Thomas, 2002) Outstanding leaders go out of their way to boost peoples self-esteem (Walton)

15 Thematic Apperception Test

16 These pictures are ambiguous
The thematic apperception test (TAT) is a projective personality test Designed at Harvard in the 1930s (Morgan & Murray) 31 pictures 10 are gender-specific 21 others can be used with all adults & children

17 The need for achievement
a strong orientation toward accomplishment and an obsession with success and goal attainment the extent to which an individual has a strong need to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards of excellence The need for affiliation reflects a strong desire to be liked by other people the extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and getting along The need for power is a desire to influence or control other people the extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others

18 A Word of Caution Soft Skills Leadership Development is a strategic choice that we can make

19 Why leave YOU unexamined?
The Power of Self-Awareness (Burckle & Boyatzis, 1999) With self-awareness, person has chance (49%) of demonstrating self- management; without it, person has virtually no chance (4%). With self-awareness, person has 38% chance of having social awareness; without it, person has 83% chance of lacking social awareness.

20 The enigma of self-awareness
Self-awareness and self-acceptance are prerequisites for psychological health, personal growth, and the ability to know and accept others Individuals who are more self-aware report less stress, perform better in managerial and leadership roles and are more productive at work The knowledge we process about ourselves (self-concept) is central to improving management skills

21 We often evade or resist personal growth and new self-knowledge so we can protect our self-esteem or self-respect We tend to be afraid of any knowledge that would cause us to despise ourselves or to make us feel inferior, weak, worthless, evil, shameful. We protect ourselves and or the ideal image of ourselves by repression and similar defenses, which are essentially techniques by which we avoid conscious of unpleasantness or dangerous truths (Maslow, 1962). But beginning the process of self exploration, if done well, can lead to great success!

22 Exploring the Intra-Personal
There various means and techniques for exploration. Personal SWOT analysis Strategic Self-SWOT analysis Strengths Weaknesses Threat Opportunity

23 Exploring the Intra-Personal
There various means and techniques for exploration Personality Assessments Big Five or Five Factor Model Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Soft Skills Assessments Emotional Intelligence Personal Ethical Decision Making Preferences for Power Usage 12 executive skills Strengths Threat Opportunity

24 Emotional Intelligence
Reading: What Makes a Good Leader (Goleman)

25 IQ vs. EQ

26 Definition of Intelligence
The ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations: the skilled use of reason The cognitive abilities of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living. "Intelligence, as a hypothetical construct, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment” - Wechsler

27 One General Intelligence??
Charles Spearman schoolchildren's grades across seemingly unrelated subjects were positively correlated doing well in one area predicted that you will do well in another these correlations reflected the influence of a dominant factor – the g factor. "general" intelligence Howard Gardner disagreed with Spearman’s g proposed the concept of multiple intelligences studied savants identified many

28 Emotional Intelligence
First called social intelligence. The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions. Many studies show EQ to be a greater predictor for future success than IQ

29 Why EI: A wake up call 70% of the reasons for losing clients/customers are EI-related: Poor service. Poorly handled complaints. Unpleasant interactions. Didn’t go the extra mile. No follow-up. Lack of human connection. Source: Research by Forum Corporation on Manufacturing and Service Companies, , cited in Orioli (2000)

30 Emotional Intelligence
A person’s ability to read other’s emotions accurately, to respond to them appropriately, to motivate oneself, to be aware of one’s own emotions, and to control one’s own emotional responses. It is a critical part of social intelligence - self-awareness - good emotional management - delay gratification in pursuit of long-term rewards - empathy, ability to read other people’s emotions

31 Emotional Intelligence
Impulse control A fundamental psychological skill Does it predict anything? The marshmallow experiment 4-year-olds Offered 1 marshmallow immediately, or 2 if they could wait in a room by themselves Those who waited: Covered their eyes, sang to themselves, played games with their hands and feet, tried to go to sleep

32 Emotional Intelligence
Those who resisted temptation years later: More socially competent, personally effective, and self-assertive Less likely to freeze under stress and pursued challenges even in the face of difficulties As high school graduates: Better able to put their ideas into words, to use and respond to reason, and to concentrate 1/3 of children who grabbed the marshmallow had SAT average of 524 (verbal) and 528 (quantitative) 1/3 of children who waited had average SAT scores of 610 (verbal) and 652 (quantitative) The essence of emotional self-regulation Goal-directed self-imposed delay of gratification The ability to deny impulse in the service of a goal

33 Five Components of EQ Self-Awareness Managing Emotions
Motivating Oneself Empathy Social Skills

34 Allows effective communication with others
Allows effective communication with others. Enables management of emotions such as mood, anxiety, fear and anger. Increases motivation at all levels. Creates leadership and the ability to gain consensus in diverse settings. Builds rapport and trust. Creates a balance of emotion and rational.

35 Druker on EI and Leadership
“Your foremost job as a leader… is to take charge of your own energy and then help orchestrate the energy of those around you.” Sources: The Effective Leader, cited in Orioli (2000); Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee (2002, p. 5)

36 T h e a r t o f l e a d e r s h I p ( I n t e r – p e r s o n a l ) Leadership Behaviors: Art of Interactions The art of Empowerment & Delegation P A R T T W O

37 Leadership: Traits to Behaviors
Do we think of EI as a great leadership trait? Do all great leaders posses EI? Are traits alone the key to understanding leader effectiveness. We note that not all great leaders possess all of the same traits Some individuals who possess EI (and other “great traits”) are not effective in their leadership roles This lack of a consistent relationship between specific leader traits and leader effectiveness led  shift in focus from traits to behavior BEHAVIOR: What great leaders actually do

38 Approaches to Understanding Leadership
Trait approach is a perspective that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that great leaders share Behavioral approach is a perspective that attempts to identify what good leaders do – that is what behaviors they exhibit Leadership Behaviors: Art of Interactions

39 Leader Behaviors Attempts to identify what good leaders do
In the behavioral approach, personal characteristics are considered less important than the actual behaviors leaders exhibit. Three general categories of leadership behavior have received particular attention: behaviors related to task performance behaviors related to group maintenance employee participation in decision making and follow through (i.e., empowerment and delegation)

40 Ohio State Studies… others
Initiating Structure: the extent to which a leader is task oriented and directs subordinates’ work activities toward goal achievement Consideration: the extent to which a leader is sensitive to subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust

41 Ohio State Studies- Leader Behaviors
Task performance/ Initiating Structure Actions taken to ensure that the work group or organization reaches its goals It is Job-oriented It is related to making sure that work gets done, and the organization is effective and efficient. EX: Assigning tasks, making schedules, encouraging adherence to rules This dimension is sometimes referred to as: concern for production directive leadership

42 Ohio State Studies- Leader Behaviors
Group maintenance/ Consideration Actions taken to ensure the satisfaction of group members, develop and maintain harmonious work relationships, and preserve the social stability of the group This type of behavior is employee-centered Leaders here tend to show their subordinates that they trust, respect, and care about them This dimension is sometimes referred to as: concern for people supportive leadership

43 Think of a mentor or someone who inspired you?
What did he/she do? What did he/she do that was different?

44 Those that Inspire Transformational leaders
Research suggests that these individuals because they are: 1) charismatic 2) intellectually stimulating 3) engaging in developmental considerations Do you inspire?

45 A Word on Charisma Charisma has to do with the ability to clearly communicate his or her vision of how good things could be by: Being passionate and clearly communicating excitement to subordinates Openly sharing information with employees so that everyone is aware and informed Empowering workers to help with solutions to problems Engaging in the development of employees by working hard to help them build skills. 45

46 Empowerment

47 Empowerment Appropriate employee empowerment is essential to team and/or organizational success Everyone claims to empower employees, but this is easier said than done

48 Empowerment It is a management approach designed to give frontline employees the authority they need to do what needs to be done without having to check with management. Providing freedom for people to do successfully what they want to do rather than getting them to do what you want them to do When empowerment is accompanied by accountability and appropriate guidance, it can lead to increased employee and customer satisfaction.

49 Empowerment Dilemma Empowered employees are more productive, more innovative, more satisfied, and created better quality products This entails giving up control and letting others make decisions, set goals, accomplish results and receive rewards… other people will probably get credit for success! This is problematic for people with high need for power and control!

50 Empower or Sacrifice? Empowering other is neither easy nor natural, we are not born knowing how to do it However, it need not to require a great amount of self sacrifice No need to sacrifice rewards, recognition, or effectiveness. In fact you can multiply your own effectiveness if you empower skillfully Despite the fact that the concept of empowerment is very popular, its actual practice is all too rare in modern management

51 What are some of the common myths about empowerment?
Everybody’s doing it. It’s easy. Every manager wants empowered employees. Every employee wants to be empowered. All the manager needs to do is leave the empowered employees alone.

52 What are some guidelines for effective employee empowerment?
Share authority instead of giving it up. Encourage dissent. Give it time. Share information. Realize that empowerment has its limitations. Watch for mixed messages. Involve employees in decision-making. Be prepared for increased variation. Select the right managers. Provide training & guidance. Hold everyone accountable. Build trust. Focus on relationships. Stress organizational values. Transform mistakes into opportunities. Reward and recognize.

53 Chose the right managers.
How? Select leaders who are already empowering their colleagues routinely. Give them a fair chance to change, but make it clear that their odds of success are not good. Call attention to leaders who are doing it right, and encourage young leaders to select them as mentors. Why? Not every manager is capable of being a coach instead of a boss. Controlling micromanagers will always slip back into their old ways. Pick the wrong managers and everyone will see that you are only giving lip service to the idea.

54 Select the right employees.
How? Identify those people already taking the initiative. Explain the risks and benefits of empowerment, and then wait for those who want to stretch to step forward. Share information openly, and then identify those with good instincts, confidence and the willingness to take risks. Why? Not every employee wants to be empowered. Only a minority of employees want to work this hard. Announce that everyone is empowered and watch the work come to a grinding halt. Only volunteers are eligible.

55 Provide adequate training.
Why? The inclination to take the initiative is natural, but effective techniques are acquired through learning and polished through experience. Those permitted to flail about aimlessly will quickly grow discouraged and withdraw. Training increases confidence and encourages risk-taking. How? Identify the most common challenges they will face. Demonstrate attitudes and behaviors most likely to be successful. Point out that nothing works every time. Celebrate every incremental improvement; perfection is in short supply. Enlist them as trainers ASAP.

56 Share information. How? Begin by asking what information is needed.
Encourage everyone to contribute to the information pool. Except for personal stuff, avoid secrets. Demonstrate openness. Invite questions and challenges. Change your position readily when new information demands reconsideration. Why? Information really is power. Everyone overestimates how much leaders know. Sharing your information encourages others to share too; their information may be the key. Data encourages analysis and discourages impulsive action.

57 Hold everyone accountable.
How? Find out what happened. Ask why it happened? Inquire whether, on looking back, a better option might have been employed. Let the emotion of the moment pass. View mistakes as opportunities to grow. Let the empowered associate come to that conclusion on her own. Why? Authority without accountability becomes self-centeredness. Every little bit of power is seductive. Unrestrained freedom is the seed from which tyrants grow. Individual freedom introduces increased variation into key organizational processes.

58 Celebrate Empowerment

59 Delegation

60 Delegation: “The act of delegating, or investing with authority to act for another” OR…. “The distribution of responsibility and authority to others while holding them accountable for their performance.”

61 Empowered Delegation Delegating and empowerment and two sides of the same coin. Delegation refers to the assignment of a task Empowerment may involve non-work activities, emotions and relationships Delegation is the assignment of new or additional responsibilities to a subordinate. It applies in all hierarchical levels “I not only use all the brains I have, but all I can borrow” – Woodrow Wilson

62 Why Delegate? To use skills and resources already within the group
To keep from burning out a few leaders To develop new leaders and build new skills within the group To get things done To prevent the group from getting too dependent on one or two members To become more powerful as a group To allow everyone to feel a part of the effort and the success Group members feel more committed if they have a role and feel needed

63 Why Not? …its too hard! …it takes too much time!
…high risk/lack of trust, nobody can do it as good as I can …nobody else has any time either…… … I want to be in the limelight

64 Steps in Delegation I –Introduce the task
D-Demonstrate clearly what needs to be done E-Ensure understanding A-Allocate authority, information and resources L-Let go S-Support and monitor

65 Consequences of Poor Delegating
Information and decision-making not shared by the group Leaders become tired out When leaders leave groups, no one has experience to carry on Group morale becomes low and people become frustrated and feel powerless The skills and knowledge of the group/organization are concentrated in a few people New members don’t find any ways to contribute to the work of the group.


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